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Outline

Definition Brief historic The four-phase model Management and planning tools The house of quality Applications Conclusion

Definition
A methodology for building the Voice of the Customer into product and service design. The way to assure the design quality while the product is still in the design time.

What is QFD?
QFD is understanding the needs of the customer and converting them into a set of design and manufacturing requirements. It is a design tool of TQM. It is a systematic process for motivating business to focus on its customers. QFD helps companies design more competitive products, in less time and with less cost
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What is QFD? cont..


Defining requirements is its most common use It helps make the transition from reactive to preventative manufacturing quality control. Helps to create a closed loop of ever improving cost, quality, timeliness, productivity, profitability, and market share.

QFD - Definition
VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER

+ =

QFD

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

QFD Definition (Cont.)

[ASI, 2000]

QFD - Benefits

[ASI, 2000]

Benefits
Some of the benefits of adopting QFD have been documented as
Reduced time to market Reduction in design changes Decreased design and manufacturing costs Improved quality Increased customer satisfaction

Why do we need QFD?


Primary goal is to overcome three major problems: disregard for the voice of the customer loss of information different individuals and functions working to different requirements
Builds a knowledge base Ties together various product development stages. Overcomes differences amongst corporate functions
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What Can We Learn From It?


Which Customer Requirements Are Most Important? What Are Our Strengths And Weaknesses? Where Do We Focus Our Efforts? Where Do We Position Ourselves? Where Do We Need To Do The Most Work? Where Must We Go To Meet Our Customers Expectations?
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Where Does QFD Fit


What types of companies Will It Work In Indian Climate? New Products New Situations Variety of Business Analysis/Decision Making Processes

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QFD Team Work


Teams are multidisciplined and represent all key functions. Are used from initial identification of requirements to deployment of requirements. Team members work toward a shared goal of a customer defined product.

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QFD Team Work cont..


the team reaches consensus on: what to do best way to do it the order in which to accomplish it

Plan and measure many times but cut once


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Participants in QFD
Cross-Functional Team Customers Design Engineers Sales Sales Support Manufacturing Engineering Finance

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QFD History
Introduced to Japan in 1966 by Yoji Akao
Used in 1970 by Mitsubishi's Kobe Shipyard Toyota Autobody uses QFD to reduce cost of producing vehicle bodies & to significantly reduce development time.. 1974 430,000 units per year at $71 per unit Cost of $30,530,000, or 1.5 times annual profit Used QFD in Process Planning and Production Planning 15

QFD History cont..


Toyota cont... QFD reduced production launch costs by 61% from Jan. 1977 to Apr. 1984 Product development time was reduced by a third while quality increased. 1978 first book was written on QFD, in 1994 it was translated to English QFD is now used widely in Japan
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QFD in North America


Only recently been introduced in North America Ford uses it in transmission assembly plant P and G used it to develop Luvs Disposable Diapers and the Crest Complete Toothbrush Chrysler uses it to develop vehicles such as the NEON In 1984 companies began considering QFD for software development
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The Four-phase Model


There is different approaches of QFD. Four-phase model.
The most common approach found in the literature. Supported by the American Supplier Institute (ASI). It deploys costumers requirements into: 1. product planning. 2. parts planning. 3. process planning. 4. production planning.

The Four-phase Model

Four Phases to QFD


Phase I: Product Planning Centered around the House of Quality Defines the customers wants in relation to the product
Phase II: Parts Deployment Product engineering functions design characteristics are transferred to part characteristics 20

Four Phases to QFD cont..


Phase III: Process Planning Move from design to manufacturing operations. Process for improvement is developed Involves floor level personnel Phase IV: Production Planning Employees on the floor contribute knowledge Employee activities interact to achieve customer expectations.

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The Seven Management and Planning Tools


Affinity diagram Tree diagram Matrix diagram Prioritization matrix Interrelationship diagram Process decision program chart Active network diagram

The House of Quality


The most important part of QFD.
Most of QFD projects stop at the House of Quality.

It displays customers needs along the left and development teams technical response to meeting those wants and needs along the top. It is composed of several sections joined together in various ways. It is a repository of marketing and product planning information.

The House of Quality

House of Quality Summary


Inputs:
Customer requirements Technical requirements Customer priorities Market reality / competitive analysis Organizations strengths & weaknesses

Outputs
Prioritized technical requirements Measurable, testable goals

Inputs
Customer Requirements Documents Customer Evaluations Interviews Brainstorming

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Voice of the Customer


Defining the voice is the most time consuming step in QFD Captured using Requirements Engineering techniques. A clear voice is essential . Quality is defined by the customer using their own terms. QFD carries the voice to the factory floor. Not all customer requirements can be easily identified. It can include a diverse number of people.

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Outputs
Customer Requirements Importance Of Requirements Ranking Of Competitors

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Possible Additional Outputs


Affinity Analysis Goal For Next Release Improvements Factor Overall Importance Sales Points Other Types Of Matrices

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Applications of QFD
Its primary application has been for planning and managing product development. More recently it has been applied to different areas such as:
Health care, Animatronics, Aircraft Engine Design, and Software Development.

House of Quality Pros and Cons


Pros:
Generates specific technical requirements Requirements are traceable Follows a repeatable, quantitative process Effectively translates Voice of the Customer Records rationale for each technical requirement

Cons:
Time-consuming process for >10 requirements Data storage, manipulation and maintenance costs Very dependent on customer requirement gathering Inflexible to changing requirements; must recalculate

QFD Life Cycle Comparisons


XP CLEANROOM

RUP

? ?
JAD

?
QFD

SASD

? ?
PD

SSM

?
RAD

QFD and Cleanroom

[SAIC, 2001]

QFD and SASD


Environmental Models Behavioural Models Implementation Models

QFD vs. JAD

QFD is a Quality-focused approach

JAD is a communication-focused approach

QFD and PD

Workers and Designers work together

QFD vs. RAD

QUALITY

SPEED

QFD vs. SSM

[Wilson, 2001]

QFD and RUP

[Ronin, 2001]

QFD and XP

[Wells, 2001]

Conclusion
A tool that assists the tracking of the customers requirements through all the phases of product development. House of Quality pits the Voice of the Customer against the Voice of Designer. It has been applied in several different areas.

References

Reference
Quality Function Deployment - Integrating Customer Requirement into Product Design by Yoji Akao Productivity Press ISBN 0-915299-41-0
Step By Step QFD - Customer Driven Product Design (Second Edition) St. Lucie Press ISBN 1-57444-110-8
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Go back to original presentation

Affinity and Tree Diagrams


Does not restrict movement Fits over Different clothes Safe Attractive Lightweight Accessible Gear Loops Lightweight Comfortable Comfortable Fits over Different clothes Accessible Gear Loops Attractive Does not restrict movement Safe

Facilitates Climbing Usability Attractive Performance

Customers Needs (What)


The most important part of the matrix. It documents the Voice of the Customer. Interviews.
Customers are encouraged to describe their needs and problems.

Affinity and Tree diagrams are used to build this matrix.

Customer Requirements
Structured Requirements Document

Title Card Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Factors which defines customer needs


Unit of analysis
Crop rotation Land Holding Soil Hardness / Geographical location

What we need to understand


Crops grown Typical land dimensions size of land Soil preparation method / implements
weight of implements Soil preparation window (s) of time Sequence of operations Amount of land to be prepared Soil hardness Depth requirements Rate of land prepartion required Max hours of operation required (duty cycle) Present variable cost of land prepartion Monitoring tractor performance Prepare the tractor for work Manner of doing the operation
Manner of climbing / alighting Proceed in which manner Prevalent habits in terms of gear usage Using the rear view mirror Adjusting implements / tractor during the operation Shifting gears, using brakes, clutch, accelerator, Draft & position controls, using the dials Turning on the field Hitching the implement Unhitching the implement Cleaning / washing tractor

Performance benchmark operating parameters


Gear / speed rpm / pto rpm

What we need to understand


Cost benchmark weight of implements Time window in which operation has to be completed Sequence of operations Amount of land to be prepared Rate of work required Max hours of operation required (duty cycle) Present variable cost of operation Manner of doing the operation Proceed in which manner Prevalent habits in terms of gear usage Hitching the implement Unhitching the implement Cleaning / washing tractor

Other agricultural operations


Using the rear view mirror Adjusting implements / tractor during the operation Shifting gears, using brakes, clutch, accelerator, Draft & position controls, using the dials Monitoring tractor performance Prepare the tractor for work Turning on the field Performance benchmark operating parameters Gear / speed rpm / pto rpm Cost benchmark Type of haulage

Haulage / Transport operations

What we need to understand


Distance to be covered Time in which the distance is covered Load to be carried Max Gradient traversed Type of trailor Compatibility issues with trailor No of people transported Manner of seating Purpose of transportation Emergency situations faced in the past Anticipated emergencies & required action Size of person driving the tractor Space required by the driver Climbing / alighting from the tractor Use of dials / knobs / levers Storage requirements Need for judgement when operating the tractor Routine maintenance required Emergency steps to be prepared for Factors that affect resale value Factors that affect insurance reimbursement Which are successful tractor models in his area His consideration set

Maintaining the tractor


Special situation

Resale value

Ergonomics / others

Environment

Planning Matrix
It quantifies the costumers requirements priorities and their perception of the performance of existing products. It allows these priorities to be adjusted based on the issues that concern the design team. Since the needs are prioritized, the QFD team can focus in the highest ranking customers needs. Matrix Diagram and Prioritization Matrix are use to build this matrix.

The Planning Matrix


Quantifies Customer Requirements. Quantifies Perceptions of Existing Products. Allows adjustment based on design team.
COMFORTABLE EASY TO PUT ON FITS OVER DIFFERENT CLOTHES 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1

The Planning Matrix


Customer Satisfaction existing products fulfilling specified requirements. Improvement Ratio = Planned Performance / Existing Performance
Sales Point weight for marketability Overall Weighting = Importance Weighting x Improvement Ratio X Sales Point

The Planning Matrix


hti me ng r S Pla ati nn sfa ed cti on Sa t isf Im act pr ion ov em en tR Sa ati les o Po int Ov era ll W eig hti ng
5 2 4 2.5 2 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 17.5 2 2.9

rta po Im
Comfortable Easy to Put On Fits over different clothes 2 5 1

nc
2 1 3

Cu

sto

eW

eig

Technical Requirements (How)


Also referred as engineering characteristics or Voice of the Developer. It is analyzed and structured like Customers needs section . Affinity and Tree diagrams are used to build this matrix.

Technical Requirements
Engineering Characteristics, Voice of the Company. Identify Measurable Characteristics related to Customer Requirements. Direction of change included to lead to improvement of product performance.

Relationship Matrix
Largest matrix of the House of Quality and therefore represents the largest volume of work. Its purpose is to translate the requirements as expressed by the customer into the technical characteristics of the product. It is a 2-d matrix with cells that relate to combination of customers needs and technical requirements. In order to measure this relationship, usually four level are considered (high, medium, low, none).

Interrelationships
Between customer requirements and technical requirements Translation and correlation step Critical to generate consensus between development team and customers.

Critical Question:

How significant is technical requirement A in satisfying customer requirement B?

Roof (Correlation Matrix)


It is used to identify where the technical requirements of the product support or impede one another. It uses a matrix, and for each cell the following question is asked:
Does improving one requirement cause a deterioration or improvement in the other technical requirement ?

Roof (Cont.)
The information recorded in the roof is useful in several ways:
It highlights where a focused design improvement could lead to a range of benefits to the product. It also focuses attention to the negative relationship in the design.
Opportunities for innovative solutions.

The Roof
Considers impact of technical requirements on each other Feature to feature comparison Augment or impede?
Critical Question: Does improving one requirement cause a deterioration or improvement in another requirement?

Meets standards

The Roof

Harness weight Webbing strength Padding thickness

+ negative/ tradeoff Legend positive/ supporting

Targets
It summarizes the conclusions drawn from the data contained in the entire matrix and the teams discussions. It is generally made up from three parts:
Technical priorities. Competitive benchmarks. Targets.

Targets

Summarize previous steps Draw conclusions Consists of:


Technical Priorities Competitive Benchmarks Final Product Targets

Results from previous steps:


Customer requirements Prioritized customer requirements Technical requirements Correlated requirements Feature interdependencies

Technical Priorities
Harness weight

High Medium Low Light weight

(9) (3) (1)

3.0 11.2 6.0

Does not restrict movement Safe Technical Priority

Overall Weighting

Webbing strength

# of buckles

Competitor #2
Meets standards Harness weight Webbing strength Padding thickness # of buckles

Competitor #1

Existing System

Competitive Benchmarks

Final Product Targets

Target System

QFD for Software Development


To put quality into a software, first one must understand what is meant by software quality. Two views of quality.
Traditional: Minimization of defects. Modern: Maximization of the value of the software.

We can have a software with no defects but also with no value to the user (Traditional view drawback).

QFD for Software Development


To determine what is of value to the user. Such a task is not easy and should be done with an approach that is systematic and quantifiable. This is where QFD plays an important role.

Matrix Diagrams and Prioritization Matrix

Tree Diagram

Left to Right: the question how accomplished ? Right to Left: the question why?

The Relationship Matrix

Interrelationships
Technical Requirements

Harness weight

High Medium Low Customer Requirements

(9) (3) (1)

Light weight Does not restrict movement Safe Technical Priority

3.0 11.2 6.0

Overall Weighting

Webbing strength

# of buckles

Correlation Matrix