You are on page 1of 26

Scheduling

What is Scheduling?
Last stage of planning before production occurs Specifies when labor, equipment, and facilities are needed to produce a product or provide a service

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-2

Objectives in Scheduling
Meet customer due dates Minimize job lateness Minimize response time Minimize completion time Minimize time in the system Minimize overtime Maximize machine or labor utilization Minimize idle time Minimize work-in-process inventory

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-3

Shop Floor Control (SFC)


Schedule and monitor day-to-day job shop production Also called production control and production activity control (PAC) Performed by production control department
Loading - check availability of material, machines, and labor Sequencing - release work orders to shop and issue dispatch lists for individual machines Monitoring - maintain progress reports on each job until it is complete

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-4

Loading
Process of assigning work to limited resources Perform work with most efficient resources Use assignment method of linear programming to determine allocation

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-5

Sequencing
Prioritize jobs assigned to a resource If no order specified use first-come first-served (FCFS) Other Sequencing Rules
FCFS - first-come, first-served LCFS - last come, first served DDATE - earliest due date CUSTPR - highest customer priority SETUP - similar required setups SLACK - smallest slack CR - smallest critical ratio SPT - shortest processing time LPT - longest processing time

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-6

Minimum Slack & Smallest Critical Ratio


SLACK considers both work and time remaining
SLACK = (due date todays date) (processing time)

CR recalculates sequence as processing continues and arranges information in ratio form CR =


time remaining work remaining

due date - todays date remaining processing time

If CR > 1, job ahead of schedule If CR < 1, job behind schedule If CR = 1, job on schedule

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-7

Sequencing Jobs Through One Process


Flow time (completion time)
Time for a job to flow through system

Tardiness
Difference between a late jobs due date and its completion time

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-8

Simple Sequencing Rules


PROCESSING TIME DUE DATE

JOB

A B C D E

5 10 2 8 6

10 15 5 12 8

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-9

Simple Sequencing Rules: FCFS


FCFS SEQUENCE START TIME PROCESSING COMPLETION DUE TIME TIME DATE

TARDINESS

A B C D E

0 5 15 17 25

5 10 2 8 6 Total Average

5 15 17 25 31 93 93/5 = 18.60

10 15 5 12 8

0 0 12 13 23 48 48/5 = 9.6

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-10

Simple Sequencing Rules: DDATE


DDATE SEQUENCE START TIME PROCESSING COMPLETION DUE TIME TIME DATE

TARDINESS

C E A D B

0 2 8 13 21

2 6 5 8 10 Total Average

2 8 13 21 31 75 75/5 = 15.00

5 8 10 12 15

0 0 3 9 16 28 28/5 = 5.6

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-11

Simple Sequencing Rules: SLACK

A(10-0) 5 = 5 B(15-0) 10 = 5 C(5-0) 2 = 3 D(12-0) 8 = 4 E(8-0) 6 = 2

SLACK SEQUENCE

START TIME

PROCESSING COMPLETION DUE TIME TIME DATE

TARDINESS

E C D A B

0 6 8 16 21

6 2 8 5 10 Total Average

6 8 16 21 31 82 82/5 = 16.40

8 5 12 10 15

0 3 4 11 16 34 34/5 = 6.8

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-12

Simple Sequencing Rules: SPT


SPT SEQUENCE START TIME PROCESSING COMPLETION DUE TIME TIME DATE

TARDINESS

C A E D B

0 2 7 13 21

2 5 6 8 10 Total Average

2 7 13 21 31 74 74/5 = 14.80

5 10 8 12 15

0 0 5 9 16 30 30/5 = 6

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-13

Simple Sequencing Rules: Summary


AVERAGE COMPLETION TIME AVERAGE TARDINESS NO. OF JOBS TARDY MAXIMUM TARDINESS

RULE

FCFS DDATE SLACK SPT

18.60 15.00 16.40 14.80


Best values

9.6 5.6 6.8 6.0

3 3 4 3

23 16 16 16

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-14

Sequencing Jobs Through Two Serial Process


Johnsons Rule
1. List time required to process each job at each process. Set up a one-dimensional matrix to represent desired sequence with # of slots equal to # of jobs. 2. Select smallest processing time at either process. If that time is on process 1, put the job as near to beginning of sequence as possible. 3. If smallest time occurs on process 2, put the job as near to the end of the sequence as possible. 4. Remove job from list. 5. Repeat steps 2-4 until all slots in matrix are filled and all jobs are sequenced.

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-15

Johnsons Rule
JOB A B C D E PROCESS 1 6 11 7 9 5 PROCESS 2 8 6 3 7 10

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-16

Monitoring
Work package
Shop paperwork that travels with a job

Gantt Chart
Shows both planned and completed activities against a time scale

Input/Output Control
Monitors the input and output from each work center

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-17

Gantt Chart
Job 32B

3 Job 23C
2 Job 11C 1

Behind schedule

Facility

Ahead of schedule Job 12A On schedule

6 8 Todays Date

10

11

12

Days

Key:

Planned activity

Completed activity
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 17-18

Input/Output Control
PERIOD Planned input Actual input Deviation Planned output Actual output Deviation Backlog 30 1 65 2 65 3 70 4 70 TOTAL 270 0 0 300 0 0

75

75

75

75

20

10

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-19

Input/Output Control
PERIOD Planned input Actual input Deviation Planned output Actual output Deviation Backlog 30 1 65 60 -5 75 75 -0 15 2 65 60 -5 75 75 -0 0 3 70 65 -5 75 65 -10 0 4 70 65 -5 75 65 -10 0 TOTAL 270 250 -20 300 280 -20

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-20

Employee Scheduling
DAY OF WEEK MIN NO. OF WORKERS REQUIRED
Taylor Smith Simpson Allen Dickerson

M
3

T
3

W
4

TH
3

F
4

SA
5

SU
3

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-21

Employee Scheduling
DAY OF WEEK MIN NO. OF WORKERS REQUIRED
Taylor Smith Simpson Allen Dickerson

M
3 O O X X X

T
3 X X O O X

W
4 X X X X O

TH
3 O O X X X

F
4 X X O X X

SA
5 X X X X X

SU
3 X X X O O

Completed schedule satisfies requirements but has no consecutive days off

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-22

Employee Scheduling
DAY OF WEEK MIN NO. OF WORKERS REQUIRED Taylor Smith Simpson Allen Dickerson M 3 O O X X X T 3 O O X X X W 4 X X O X X TH 3 X X O O X F 4 X X X X O SA 5 X X X X X SU 3 X X X O O

Revised schedule satisfies requirements with consecutive days off for most employees

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-23

Theory of Constraints
Not all resources are used evenly Finite scheduling approach Concentrate on the bottleneck resource Synchronize flow through the bottleneck Use process and transfer batch sizes to move product through facility

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-24

Drum-Buffer-Rope
Drum
Bottleneck, beating to set the pace of production for the rest of the system

Buffer
Inventory placed in front of the bottleneck to ensure it is always kept busy Determines output or throughput of the system

Rope
Communication signal; tells processes upstream when they should begin production

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-25

TOC Scheduling Procedure


Identify bottleneck Schedule job first whose lead time to bottleneck is less than or equal to bottleneck processing time Forward schedule bottleneck machine Backward schedule other machines to sustain bottleneck schedule Transfer in batch sizes smaller than process batch size

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17-26