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# Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

## Quote of the Day

Mathematics is the tool specially suited for
dealing with abstract concepts of any kind and
there is no limit to its power in this field.

Paul Dirac
Content and Figures are from Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2e by Oppenheim, Shafer, and Buck, 1999-2000 Prentice Hall
Inc.
351M Digital Signal Processing
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Discrete-Time Signals: Sequences
Discrete-time signals are represented by sequence of numbers
The n
th
number in the sequence is represented with x[n]

Often times sequences are obtained by sampling of
continuous-time signals
In this case x[n] is value of the analog signal at x
c
(nT)
Where T is the sampling period
0 20 40 60 80 100
-10
0
10
t (ms)
0 10 20 30 40 50
-10
0
10
n (samples)
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Basic Sequences and Operations
Delaying (Shifting) a sequence

Unit sample (impulse) sequence

Unit step sequence

Exponential sequences

] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=

=
=
= o
0 n 1
0 n 0
] n [

>
<
=
0 n 1
0 n 0
] n [ u
n
A ] n [ x o =
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
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Sinusoidal Sequences
Important class of sequences

An exponential sequence with complex

x[n] is a sum of weighted sinusoids
Different from continuous-time, discrete-time sinusoids
Have ambiguity of 2tk in frequency

Are not necessary periodic with 2t/e
o

| | ( ) | + e = n cos n x
o
| e
= o = o
j j
e A A and e
o
| |
( )
| | ( ) ( ) | + e o + | + e o =
o = o = o =
| + e e |
n sin A j n cos A n x
e A e e A A n x
o
n
o
n
n j
n
n j
n
j n
o o
( ) ( ) ( ) | + e = | + t + e n cos n k 2 cos
o o
( ) ( ) integer an is
k 2
N if only N n cos n cos
o
o o o
e
t
= | + e + e = | + e
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Demo
Rotating Phasors Demo

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Discrete-Time Systems
Discrete-Time Sequence is a mathematical operation that
maps a given input sequence x[n] into an output sequence
y[n]

Example Discrete-Time Systems
Moving (Running) Average

Maximum

Ideal Delay System

]} n [ x { T ] n [ y =
T{.} x[n] y[n]
] 3 n [ x ] 2 n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y + + + =
{ } ] 2 n [ x ], 1 n [ x ], n [ x max ] n [ y =
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
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Memoryless System
Memoryless System
A system is memoryless if the output y[n] at every value of n
depends only on the input x[n] at the same value of n

Example Memoryless Systems
Square

Sign

Counter Example
Ideal Delay System

( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
{ } ] n [ x sign ] n [ y =
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
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Linear Systems
Linear System: A system is linear if and only if

Examples
Ideal Delay System

{ } { }
{ } { } (scaling) ] n [ x aT ] n [ ax T
and
y) (additivit ] n [ x T ] n [ x T ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T
2 1 2 1
=
+ = +
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
{ }
{ }
{ } ] n n [ ax ] n [ x aT
] n n [ ax ] n [ ax T
] n n [ x ] n n [ x ] n [ x T ]} n [ x { T
] n n [ x ] n n [ x ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T
o 1
o 1
o 2 o 1 1 2
o 2 o 1 2 1
=
=
+ = +
+ = +
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Time-Invariant Systems
Time-Invariant (shift-invariant) Systems
A time shift at the input causes corresponding time-shift at output

Example
Square

Counter Example
Compressor System

{ } ] n n [ x T ] n n [ y ]} n [ x { T ] n [ y
o o
= =
( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
| | ( )
| | ( )
2
o o
2
o 1
] n n [ x n - n y gives output the Delay
] n n [ x n y is output the input the Delay
=
=
] Mn [ x ] n [ y =
| |
| | ( ) | |
o o
o 1
n n M x n - n y gives output the Delay
] n Mn [ x n y is output the input the Delay
=
=
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Causal System
Causality
A system is causal its output is a function of only the current and
previous samples

Examples
Backward Difference

Counter Example
Forward Difference

] n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ y + + =
] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y =
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Stable System
Stability (in the sense of bounded-input bounded-output BIBO)
A system is stable if and only if every bounded input produces a
bounded output

Example
Square

Counter Example
Log

< s < s
y x
B ] n [ y B ] n [ x
( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
< s
< s
2
x
x
B ] n [ y by bounded is output
B ] n [ x by bounded is input if
( ) ] n [ x log ] n [ y
10
=
| | | | | | ( ) = = =
< s
n x log 0 y 0 n x for bounded not output
B ] n [ x by bounded is input if even
10
x