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Mathematics is the tool specially suited for

dealing with abstract concepts of any kind and

there is no limit to its power in this field.

Paul Dirac

Content and Figures are from Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2e by Oppenheim, Shafer, and Buck, 1999-2000 Prentice Hall

Inc.

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

2

Discrete-Time Signals: Sequences

Discrete-time signals are represented by sequence of numbers

The n

th

number in the sequence is represented with x[n]

Often times sequences are obtained by sampling of

continuous-time signals

In this case x[n] is value of the analog signal at x

c

(nT)

Where T is the sampling period

0 20 40 60 80 100

-10

0

10

t (ms)

0 10 20 30 40 50

-10

0

10

n (samples)

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

3

Basic Sequences and Operations

Delaying (Shifting) a sequence

Unit sample (impulse) sequence

Unit step sequence

Exponential sequences

] n n [ x ] n [ y

o

=

=

=

= o

0 n 1

0 n 0

] n [

>

<

=

0 n 1

0 n 0

] n [ u

n

A ] n [ x o =

-10 -5 0 5 10

0

0.5

1

1.5

-10 -5 0 5 10

0

0.5

1

1.5

-10 -5 0 5 10

0

0.5

1

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

4

Sinusoidal Sequences

Important class of sequences

An exponential sequence with complex

x[n] is a sum of weighted sinusoids

Different from continuous-time, discrete-time sinusoids

Have ambiguity of 2tk in frequency

Are not necessary periodic with 2t/e

o

| | ( ) | + e = n cos n x

o

| e

= o = o

j j

e A A and e

o

| |

( )

| | ( ) ( ) | + e o + | + e o =

o = o = o =

| + e e |

n sin A j n cos A n x

e A e e A A n x

o

n

o

n

n j

n

n j

n

j n

o o

( ) ( ) ( ) | + e = | + t + e n cos n k 2 cos

o o

( ) ( ) integer an is

k 2

N if only N n cos n cos

o

o o o

e

t

= | + e + e = | + e

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

5

Demo

Rotating Phasors Demo

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

6

Discrete-Time Systems

Discrete-Time Sequence is a mathematical operation that

maps a given input sequence x[n] into an output sequence

y[n]

Example Discrete-Time Systems

Moving (Running) Average

Maximum

Ideal Delay System

]} n [ x { T ] n [ y =

T{.} x[n] y[n]

] 3 n [ x ] 2 n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y + + + =

{ } ] 2 n [ x ], 1 n [ x ], n [ x max ] n [ y =

] n n [ x ] n [ y

o

=

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

7

Memoryless System

Memoryless System

A system is memoryless if the output y[n] at every value of n

depends only on the input x[n] at the same value of n

Example Memoryless Systems

Square

Sign

Counter Example

Ideal Delay System

( )

2

] n [ x ] n [ y =

{ } ] n [ x sign ] n [ y =

] n n [ x ] n [ y

o

=

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

8

Linear Systems

Linear System: A system is linear if and only if

Examples

Ideal Delay System

{ } { }

{ } { } (scaling) ] n [ x aT ] n [ ax T

and

y) (additivit ] n [ x T ] n [ x T ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T

2 1 2 1

=

+ = +

] n n [ x ] n [ y

o

=

{ }

{ }

{ } ] n n [ ax ] n [ x aT

] n n [ ax ] n [ ax T

] n n [ x ] n n [ x ] n [ x T ]} n [ x { T

] n n [ x ] n n [ x ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T

o 1

o 1

o 2 o 1 1 2

o 2 o 1 2 1

=

=

+ = +

+ = +

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

9

Time-Invariant Systems

Time-Invariant (shift-invariant) Systems

A time shift at the input causes corresponding time-shift at output

Example

Square

Counter Example

Compressor System

{ } ] n n [ x T ] n n [ y ]} n [ x { T ] n [ y

o o

= =

( )

2

] n [ x ] n [ y =

| | ( )

| | ( )

2

o o

2

o 1

] n n [ x n - n y gives output the Delay

] n n [ x n y is output the input the Delay

=

=

] Mn [ x ] n [ y =

| |

| | ( ) | |

o o

o 1

n n M x n - n y gives output the Delay

] n Mn [ x n y is output the input the Delay

=

=

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

10

Causal System

Causality

A system is causal its output is a function of only the current and

previous samples

Examples

Backward Difference

Counter Example

Forward Difference

] n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ y + + =

] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y =

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing

11

Stable System

Stability (in the sense of bounded-input bounded-output BIBO)

A system is stable if and only if every bounded input produces a

bounded output

Example

Square

Counter Example

Log

< s < s

y x

B ] n [ y B ] n [ x

( )

2

] n [ x ] n [ y =

< s

< s

2

x

x

B ] n [ y by bounded is output

B ] n [ x by bounded is input if

( ) ] n [ x log ] n [ y

10

=

| | | | | | ( ) = = =

< s

n x log 0 y 0 n x for bounded not output

B ] n [ x by bounded is input if even

10

x

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