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Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

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Content and Figures are from Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2e by Oppenheim, Shafer, and Buck, 1999-2000 Prentice Hall
Inc.
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
2
Discrete-Time Signals: Sequences
Discrete-time signals are represented by sequence of numbers
The n
th
number in the sequence is represented with x[n]

Often times sequences are obtained by sampling of
continuous-time signals
In this case x[n] is value of the analog signal at x
c
(nT)
Where T is the sampling period
0 20 40 60 80 100
-10
0
10
t (ms)
0 10 20 30 40 50
-10
0
10
n (samples)
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
3
Basic Sequences and Operations
Delaying (Shifting) a sequence


Unit sample (impulse) sequence



Unit step sequence



Exponential sequences



] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=

=
=
= o
0 n 1
0 n 0
] n [

>
<
=
0 n 1
0 n 0
] n [ u
n
A ] n [ x o =
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
-10 -5 0 5 10
0
0.5
1
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
4
Sinusoidal Sequences
Important class of sequences


An exponential sequence with complex




x[n] is a sum of weighted sinusoids
Different from continuous-time, discrete-time sinusoids
Have ambiguity of 2tk in frequency


Are not necessary periodic with 2t/e
o


| | ( ) | + e = n cos n x
o
| e
= o = o
j j
e A A and e
o
| |
( )
| | ( ) ( ) | + e o + | + e o =
o = o = o =
| + e e |
n sin A j n cos A n x
e A e e A A n x
o
n
o
n
n j
n
n j
n
j n
o o
( ) ( ) ( ) | + e = | + t + e n cos n k 2 cos
o o
( ) ( ) integer an is
k 2
N if only N n cos n cos
o
o o o
e
t
= | + e + e = | + e
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
5
Demo
Rotating Phasors Demo

Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
6
Discrete-Time Systems
Discrete-Time Sequence is a mathematical operation that
maps a given input sequence x[n] into an output sequence
y[n]



Example Discrete-Time Systems
Moving (Running) Average


Maximum


Ideal Delay System


]} n [ x { T ] n [ y =
T{.} x[n] y[n]
] 3 n [ x ] 2 n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y + + + =
{ } ] 2 n [ x ], 1 n [ x ], n [ x max ] n [ y =
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
7
Memoryless System
Memoryless System
A system is memoryless if the output y[n] at every value of n
depends only on the input x[n] at the same value of n


Example Memoryless Systems
Square


Sign


Counter Example
Ideal Delay System


( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
{ } ] n [ x sign ] n [ y =
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
8
Linear Systems
Linear System: A system is linear if and only if





Examples
Ideal Delay System







{ } { }
{ } { } (scaling) ] n [ x aT ] n [ ax T
and
y) (additivit ] n [ x T ] n [ x T ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T
2 1 2 1
=
+ = +
] n n [ x ] n [ y
o
=
{ }
{ }
{ } ] n n [ ax ] n [ x aT
] n n [ ax ] n [ ax T
] n n [ x ] n n [ x ] n [ x T ]} n [ x { T
] n n [ x ] n n [ x ]} n [ x ] n [ x { T
o 1
o 1
o 2 o 1 1 2
o 2 o 1 2 1
=
=
+ = +
+ = +
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
9
Time-Invariant Systems
Time-Invariant (shift-invariant) Systems
A time shift at the input causes corresponding time-shift at output


Example
Square




Counter Example
Compressor System

{ } ] n n [ x T ] n n [ y ]} n [ x { T ] n [ y
o o
= =
( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
| | ( )
| | ( )
2
o o
2
o 1
] n n [ x n - n y gives output the Delay
] n n [ x n y is output the input the Delay
=
=
] Mn [ x ] n [ y =
| |
| | ( ) | |
o o
o 1
n n M x n - n y gives output the Delay
] n Mn [ x n y is output the input the Delay
=
=
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
10
Causal System
Causality
A system is causal its output is a function of only the current and
previous samples

Examples
Backward Difference


Counter Example
Forward Difference



] n [ x ] 1 n [ x ] n [ y + + =
] 1 n [ x ] n [ x ] n [ y =
Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing
11
Stable System
Stability (in the sense of bounded-input bounded-output BIBO)
A system is stable if and only if every bounded input produces a
bounded output


Example
Square




Counter Example
Log


< s < s
y x
B ] n [ y B ] n [ x
( )
2
] n [ x ] n [ y =
< s
< s
2
x
x
B ] n [ y by bounded is output
B ] n [ x by bounded is input if
( ) ] n [ x log ] n [ y
10
=
| | | | | | ( ) = = =
< s
n x log 0 y 0 n x for bounded not output
B ] n [ x by bounded is input if even
10
x