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Major Safety Terminology

Safety A state of protection and a condition not involving risk. Perhaps the best we can agree that there is no absolute safety as there is always a chance a risk of something going wrong, however small the chance may be.
Safe A thing is provisionally categorised as safe if its risks are deemed known and in the light of that knowledge judged to be acceptable

Major Safety Terminology

Hazards Is a condition with the potential of causing an harm / accident or ill healthy
Risk The chance or probability of loss an evaluation of the potential for failure.

Major Safety Terminology

Accident An undesired event which results in physical harm and property damage, usually resulting from contact with a source of energy above the ability of the body or structure to withstand it Is an unplanned event which has probability of causing personal injury or property damage

Accident is an unplanned, undesirable, unexpected, and uncontrolled event Can result in:
Injury, disability, fatality Damages to property, equipment and materials Delays to work and services

Basic Cause of Accidents

Three basic causes of incident: Basic causes Indirect causes Direct causes

What cause accident?

Fatalities are created in many ways;
The hazardous nature of work. The many methods and types of operation, resulting in confusion about safe method for work activities Safety procedure are not well established Find more

What cause accident?

Unsafe acts
Working without authority Failure to warn others of danger Leaving equipment in a dangerous conditions Using equipment wrongly Remove safety devices e.g. guards rail Using defective equipment Failure to use PPE Etc..

What cause accident?

Unsafe conditions
Inadequate guards to moving machines Missing platform guardrails Fire hazards Hazardous atmospherics conditions Insufficient lighting Etc

Secondary causes of accidents

Management system pressures
Financial restrictions Lack of commitment Lack of policy Lack of standards Lack of knowledge and information Restricted training and selection for tasks Poor quality control

Secondary causes of accidents

Social pressures
Group attitudes Industry traditions Society attitudes to risk taking acceptable behaviour in the workplace Commercial pressures between contractors

Accident prevention
1. If possible, avoid a risk altogether by eliminating the hazard 2. Tackle the risk at source 3. Adapt work to the individual when designing work areas and selecting methods of work 4. Use technology to improve conditions 5. Give priority to protection for the whole workplace rather than to individuals 6. Ensure everyone understands what they have to do be safe and healthy at work 7. Make sure health and safety management is accepted by everyone, and that it applies to all aspects of the organizations activities

Benefit of accident prevention

Cost of human suffering
Physical pain and hardship resulting from death and disability is impossible to quantify

Do not put safety at risk for profit or other reasons

Statute law, Civil law

To avoid cost associated with accidents

New business
Good safety records can gain new business

Types of accident and injury

Cause of fatalities
Falls Contact with moving vehicles Struck by moving vehicle Lifting, handling, carrying Trapped by collapse Drowning Explosion Electrocution Etc..


Domino Theory Loss causation model Multi causality Accident Model


Introduced by Herbert W.Heinrich ( 1930 ). Injury from an accident is the result of a series of events that is dependent on each other. -Injuries are caused by accidents - Accidents are caused by unsafe acts and unsafe condition. - Unsafe acts and unsafe condition are caused by the faults of person. - Faults of person are caused by a personal flaw such as violent temper, nervousness or ignorance. - The injured worker s ancestry and social environment.
ancestry person Hazard accidents Injuries

Domino Theory


Multicausality Accident Model

Refers to the facts that there may be more that one cause to any accident. Example: Someone who had tripping accident over a piece of wood lying on a floor in a dark walkway.
Cause A ( poor lighting )

Cause B ( Not look where going )

Accident ( Trip)

Cause C ( Wood in walkway )


Loss Causation Model

Introduced by Frank E. Bird ( 1970 ). Revised Heinrich Domino. Blaming management Threshold Limit
Lack of Control Basic causes Immediate causes Incidents Loss

Inadequate sys

Personal factors

Substandard act/practice Event Iunintended harm or Damage

Inadequate Stand

Job/syt factors
Inadequate Compliance

Subst. Conditio


Effect of accidents
Accident can generate a cost which can be divided into; direct and indirect costs of accidents E.g. cost of industrial accidents:
In Malaysia ~ approx. RM 4 billion [1995] UK ~ 18 billions pounds [1995] US ~ 150 USD [1994]

Costs of accidents
Direct Cost
Cost that are directly attributed to or associated with injuries (Hinze, 1997) Usually covered by workers compensation insurance policies (cost of ambulance service, medical &
ancillary treatment, hospitalization, and disability benefits, including lost wages to injured workers)

Direct costs of workplace accidents

Employee lost time Medical and hospital costs Compensation and liability claims Legal costs Insurance costs Replacement costs (equipment, products, personnel)

Direct costs of workplace accidents

Employee lost time Medical and hospital costs Compensation and liability claims Legal costs Insurance costs Replacement costs (equipment, products, personnel)

Costs of accidents
Indirect Costs
Costs that are hidden, or for which there is no retrieval mechanism to accurately associate the accident with injuries (Hinze, 1997)

Costs of accidents
Indirect Costs Examples: Help the injured and give first aid Clean up Reschedule production Repair or test equipment or check for faults Investigate the accident and prepare reports Deal with outside agencies Changes that have to made to equipment, safety devices or procedures Hiring in temporary equipment Disposing of waste Fines from DOSH Etc

Indirect costs of workplace accidents

Cost of time lost by other employees who stop work Cost of time lost by supervisors Cost of first-aider time Cost of injury to equipment or spoil to materials Cost of interference with production Cost die to ensuing loss of profit Overhead cost of injured employee Administrative costs

Cost of Incident Prevention

Insured : RM 1 uninsured : RM 8~36

Accident Cost Iceberg


Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit


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