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CONTENTS
Introduction of CPU Need of CPU Service cycle of CPU Regeneration process Case study Benefits Conclusion
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INTRODUCTION

The Condensate polishing units are typically installed for super


thermal power station with the main objective of improving the boiler water quality. The benefits of condensate polishing is

quicker start up and as a result full load conditions are reached


early giving economic benefits. Orderly shut down is possible in the case of condenser tube leak conditions.

NEED OF CPU
The Condensate Polishing Unit removes 'CRUD' - corrosion products consisting mostly of oxide of iron, copper or nickel Dissolved Solids - mostly consisting of sodium, chloride and silica and Dissolved Gases-Carbon dioxide.
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SOURCES 0F CONTAMINATION
1. Contamination from Make up water 2. Use of impure water for dosing system. 3. Use of impure dosing chemicals 4.Residues from Chemical Cleaning operation 5.Condenser tube leakage.
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CPU DESCRIPTION
RSTPS 500MW each CPU having provision to utilize 50 % for condensate treatment
AUTO BYPASS allow BYPASSING of CPU at set pressure

From CEP

B Y P A S S

CPU-A

CPU-B

To deareator

CPU SERVICE VESSELS


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SERVICE CYCLE OF CPU


During service the CPU O/L is monitored for pH, Cation Conductivity (max 0.1 mhos/cm ) and sodium.

The service cycle of CPU consists of


1.H+ cycle - when cations are exchanged with H+

2.NH3 cycle - when cations are exchanged with NH4+.

SERVICE CYCLE OF CPU


During the H+ cycle , dosing of Ammonia at CPU O/L is essential to maintain the pH of

the system.
H+ cycle duration is 6 to 7 days NH4+ cycle duration is 14 days

SERVICE CYCLE OF CPU


Cation exchange during service cycle R- SO3 H + NaCl R- SO 3 NH4 + NaCl R- SO3Na + HCl R- SO3Na + NH4Cl

Anion exchange during service cycle


R- NR3OH + HCl
R- NR3OH + NH4Cl

R- NR3Cl + H2O
R- NR3Cl + NH4OH

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SERVICE CYCLE OF CPU


DESIGN PERFORMANCE
(under normal operating conditions)
PARAMETERS HYDROGEN AMMONIA CYCLE CYCLE _____________________________________________________ TOTAL CRUD, ppb <10 < 10 SILICA as SiO2, ppb <5 <5 IRON as Fe, ppb <5 <5 SODIUM as Na+, ppb <2 <5 CHLORIDE as Cl-, ppb <1 <2 CATION COND as (H),us/cm < 0.1 < 0.1 _____________________________________________________
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REGENRATION PROCESS
1. BACK WASH TO SEPARATE RESINS 2. INJECT ANION RESIN REGENERANT 3. RINSE ANION RESIN 4. INJECT CATION RESIN REGENERANT 5. RINSE CATION RESIN 6. DRAIN BED 7. AIR MIX THE RESINS 8. ALLOW BED TO SETTLE 9. REFILL UNIT 10.RINSE
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REGENRATION PROCESS
SERVICE WATER IN ACID IN BACK WASH OUT NaOH IN

Mixed cation and anion resin

Anion resin Cation resin

Anion resin

ACID OUT

NaOH OUT BACK WASH IN

SERVICE WATER OUT

MIXING AIR IN

TYPICAL REGENRATION CONDITIONS FOR RESINS IN MIXED BED

ANION Regeneration level , g/l resin Regenerant concentration wt% Regeneration injection time , h Regeneration flow rate , BV/h Rinse time , h Rinse volume(BV) 64 4 0.5 3.2 0.5 5

CATION 64 5 0.5 3.2 0.5 5

Regenerant

NaOH

HCl

CASE STUDY ON RSTPS STAGE 2 CPU AMMONIUM CYCLE


IT IS OBSERVED THAT WHEN RSTPS STAGE 2 CPU OUT LET pH EXCEEDS 6.2 CHLORIDE IS LEAKING

BUT IN STAGE 3 CPU UP TO 9.0 pH THEREIS NO CHLORIDE LEAKING

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IF WE OBSERVE HYDROGEN CYCLE AT CATION RESIN:

R-H + Na+
R-H + NH4+

R-Na + H+
R-NH4 + H+

AT ANION RESIN:
R-OH + Cl FINAL OUT PUT IS: H+ + OH H2O R-Cl + OH

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IF WE OBSERVE AMMONIUM CYCLE AT CATION RESIN:

R-NH4 + Na+
AT ANION RESIN: R-OH + Cl FINAL OUT PUT IS: NH4+ + OH

R-Na +NH4+

R-Cl + OH

NH4OH

SO WE OBSERVE IN AMMONIUM CYCLE THERE IS A RISE IN pH. ALONG WITH RISE IN p H CHLORIDE IS LEAKIG. SO WE CAN NOT GET THROUGHPUT IN AMMONIUM CYCLE WHERE AS DESIGNED THROUGHPUT IS 226800M3 .
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SO WE CAN PREDICT CHEMICAL REACTION AS FOLLOWS NH4OH + R-Cl NH4 Cl + R-OH

IT IS A EQUILLIBRIUM REACTION AND FORWARD REACTION IS MORE FAVOURABLE

FORWARD EXPLAINS FOR CHLORIDE LEAKING NH4OH + R-Cl NH4 Cl + R-OH

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ACCORDING TO CHEMICAL KINETICS RATE OF THE REACTIN IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE CONCENTRATION OF RECTANTS.

FOR CONTROLLING CHLORIDES RATE OF FORWARD REACTION SHOULD BE LOW. THAT MEANS WE HAVE TO DECREASE NH4OH , R-Cl CONCENTRATIONS.
THIS IS NOTHING BUT REGENERATION OF ANION AND CATION RESIN AND THIS IS THE ONLY PRACTICE.

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BACKWARD REACTION IS:


NH4 Cl + R-OH NH4 OH + R-Cl

THIS IS THEREACTION RESPONSIBLE TRAPING THE CHLORIDES IN RESINE. FOR CONTROLLING CHLORIDES RATE OF THIS REACTION SHOULD BE HIGH. THAT MEANS WE HAVE TO INCREASE NH4Cl , R-OH CONCENTRATIONS.BUT IT IS NOT POSSIBLE. ACCORDING TO CHEMICAL KINETICS RATE OF THE REACTIN IS DEPEND UP ON THE NATURE OF RECTANTS ALSO.
SO WE HAVE TO UPGRADE THE ANION RESIN IN SUCH AWAY THAT ANION RESIN SHOULD TRAP THE CHLORIDES.
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BENEFITS
1. REDUCTION IN CBD HOURS&MAKE UP 2. CONTROL IN DRUM PRESSURE RESTRICTION 3. CHEMICAL CONTROL DURING STARTUP IS VERY EFFECTIVE 4. ORDERLY SHUTDOWN POSSIBLE IN CASE OF CONDENSOR TUBE LEAK CONDITION 5. IMROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF STEAM WHICH RESULT IN ENHANCED TURBINE LIFE 6. IMPROVEMENT IN BOILER WATER QUALITY FOR DRUM TYPE BOILERS 7. QUICK STARTUP AND AS RESULT,FULL LOAD CONDITIONS ARE REACHED EARLY GIVING ECONIMIC BENEFITS
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CONCLUSION
Condensate polishing is a proven method of maintaining the purity in the steam/water circuits. It protects against condenser leakages , removes traces of ionic impurities & crud from condensate before it is recycled to boiler. It reduces CBD hours and save water

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