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ByGaurav Malhotra

Agenda
What BI ? Past of BI Why BI ? How BI ? OLAP OLTP Dashboards & Scorecards Data Mining

What is BI (Business Intelligence) ?


Organized, Analyzed Data

Raw, Collected Data

B.I. (Processes, Tools & Technologies)

Critical to Understand from every perspective

Analyzing and Re-arranging the data according to the relationships between the data items by knowing what data to collect and manage and in what context.

Better Decisions leads to Profits

History of BI
1958 IBM researcher Hans Peter Luhn used the term business intelligence. 1960 Birth of DSS (Decision Support Systems) Mid-1980s Maturity in development of DSS. DSS assisted decision making & planning. Late-1980s DSS gave birth to Data Warehouses, EIS (Executive Information System), OLAP, & Business Intelligence 1989 & 1990s Mr. Howard Dresner (later a Gartner Group analyst) proposed "business intelligence" as an umbrella term to describe "concepts and methods to improve business decision making by using fact-based support systems. 1990s Business Intelligence was widespread.

Importance of BI
Critical Questions: 1. Net Profit Last Year ? 2. Sales This Year ? 3. How to increase Sales this year? Critical Questions: 1. Net Profit Last Year ? 2. Sales This Year ? 3. How to increase Sales this year?

Exploring Data

Business Intelligence System Raw Data Raw Data

1. Customer Preferences, 2. Nature of customers, 3. Supply chains, 4. Geographical influences, & 5. pricings

BI & ROI (Return on Investment)


B.I. Implementation Cost, Maintenance Cost
Business Intelligence System

Proper Business Action, Proper Implementation

Business Intelligence System

BI Environment & Business Flow


Business Models Data Models
Data Sources

Skilled Business People

OLAP Analysis
Target Data Warehouse

Business Intelligence System

Data Marts

ETL
Tools
Reporting Tools

Common Business Intelligence Environment


Data Sources Data Marts

Relational Databases

Business Modeling

Data Modeling

File Sources

Extraction, Transformation & Loading

Data Warehouse

Other Sources

OLAP Cubes

1. Business Modeling
What is the business all about ?, What specific business problem it is intend to solve ?, & How the information flows from source to destination ?
Business Modeling

Business Model
Business Process Modeling:

Diagrams
Arrow Text Labels
Processes & their Relationships Data Flow Diagram Graphics

Business Modeling

Process Flow Modeling: Data Flow Modeling:

Sample of BPM

Sample of PFM

Sample DFD/DFM

2. Data Modeling:
Data Structure/Entities & their Relationships
Converting into Visual Form

Data Models

Conceptual Data Modeling: Logical Data Modeling: Data Models Physical Data Modeling: Enterprise Data Modeling:

Visualizes overall database Structure Entities, attributes & their relationship Tables, columns, properties & relationship b/w them Consolidates the information across the Enterprise.

Relational Data Modeling:

E-R Model

CDM Example

LDM Example

PDM Example

EDM Example

RDM Example

3. Dimensional Modeling:
fact table
Various measures or facts like sales amount, loan amount etc.

Dimensional Model
Dimension table
Describes the particular entity like time, state etc.

4. Star & Snowflake Schema:

5. ETL Process & Data Warehouse:


Extracting the source data

ETL Process:

Transforming that data loading that data into a data warehouse

Data Warehouse:

Centralized repository where all the information for analysis is kept in an organization.

Cleansing, Profiling, data type conversion, validating for referential integrity, performing aggregation if needed, de normalization and normalization.

Data Marts:

Subject oriented, basically a sub-set of data warehouse, built for the purpose of analyzing a particular line of business or department.

6. Business Intelligence Reports:


B.I. Tools
Cleansing & Transformation of Data

B.I. Reports

Zero Footprint Technology


Straight Tables & Pivot Tables

Charts

What is OLAP?
Data Sources ERP CRM SCM Oracle DB Server MS Sql Server OLAP Cube Data Marts Dashboards

Formatted Reports

Data Warehouse List Reports

OLAP Example

What is OLTP ?
Data Sources ERP CRM SCM Data Marts Oracle DB Server MS SQL Server

OLTP Application

Dashboards

Formatted Reports

Data Warehouse

List Reports

OLTP System (Operational System)


Source of Data Purpose of data What the Data Inserts & Updates Operational data; Original source of the data. Control & Run fundamental business tasks. Ongoing business processes Short & fast inserts and updates initiated by end users

OLAP System (Data Warehouse)


Consolidation data; From Various OLTP Databases. Help with planning, problem solving, & decision support Multi-dimensional views of Various business activities Periodic long-running batch jobs refresh the data

Queries

Relatively standardized and simple queries Returning relatively few records


Typically very fast

Often complex queries involving aggregations


Depends on the amount of data involved; batch data refreshes and complex queries may take many hours; query speed can be improved by creating indexes Larger due to the existence of aggregation structures and history data; requires more indexes than OLTP Typically de-normalized with fewer tables; use of star and/or snowflake schemas Instead of regular backups, some environments may consider simply reloading the OLTP data as a recovery method

Processing Speed

Space Requirements

Relatively small if historical data is archived Highly normalized with many tables Backup religiously; operational data is critical to run the business, data loss is likely to entail significant monetary loss and legal liability

Database Design Backup & Recovery

Business Intelligence Tools Directory:

Business Intelligence Tool Guide:


How to install and setup the BI software? How to get license and training from BI software vendors? How to create users, administrators and assign privileges to users? How to connect to the different database servers from BI applications? How to understand and work on BI data models or universe? How to frame the select statement according to the business requirements? How to select the tables that have to be used in the report? How to select the columns that are required for reporting? How to write the join condition to join (inner join, outer join) different tables in select statement? How to write multiple select statements in a single report? How to write the filters (null, in, equal to, greater than) that are required after the where clause?

How to create dimensions and facts? How to drill up and drill down? How to set user prompts for user to enter values? How to process the query and retrieve the results? How to work on results? How to modify field formats? How to sort data? How to create computer items like date functions, numeric and string functions? How to create pivots? How to add data? How to create totals? How to group data? How to create charts? How to create reports? How to work on reporting body? How to work on report group headers?

How to work on report header/footer? How to work on page header/footer? How to design the report layout? How to use page breaks? How to schedule, monitor, modify, delete, and refresh a job(report)? How to write report design document, /report testing document, test reports and get user acceptance? How to distribute reports and results via email, printers, intranet server, and web? How to export and import data? How to track on scorecards, balancing scorecards, forecasting, key performance indicators and dashboards?

Business Intelligence & Key Performance Indicators:


List of measurements that are identified as critical factors in achieving the organizational goals or mission. Requirements of a good KPI:

Measurable: Should be quantifiable in terms of numbers. Reflect the organizational Goals: Should drive a business towards success. Actionable: Should help the managers to initiate some business action as a result of all the analysis and measures lead by KPI.

What is a Dashboard in Business terms?


Visual Representation of KPIs of interest

Features of Dashboard
Web based Interface Role Based View Reports Charting and Graphing

Pre-defined Performance Metrics

Benefits of using Business Intelligence Dashboard:


Quick Conversion of Complex Corporate Data into a Meaningful Display of Charts, Graphs, Gauges and other formats concurrently.

Allow the Managers to Drill-Down data to go Deeper into the Analysis

Clear Picture about how a company is performing in its Critical Areas.

Scorecards:
Mostly Scorecards are a Subset of Dashboard
Scorecards Dashboard

CRM scorecards presents a quick picture of which strategy you need to concentrate to improve customer satisfaction but lacks any detail as to why are you struggling in bringing up maximum resolutions.
Its Managing, but not monitoring/measuring.

CRM dashboards use lots of measures that give you data about how your team is operating, but provide little insight into progress towards your goal of reaching maximum resolutions.
Its measuring/monitoring, but not managing.

Scorecard

Dashboard

What is Data Mining?


Cleansing Data Data Marts Profiling Data Data type Conversion Validating for Referential Integrity Performing Aggregation if needed

De normalization and Normalization


Data Warehouse

Data Mining Life Cycle:


Analyze the Results Find out the Business Problem

Implement the Knowledge

Knowledge Discovery

OLAP vs. Data Mining:


vs.

What has happened ?

Why it has happened ?

Thank you

Any questions?

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