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HISTORY OF

ARCHITECTURE-V
Market halls and galleries of late 18th -20th
century

Submitted by : Shikha
2k6/ARCH/652
I9TH CENTURY
ARCHITECTURE
The Industrial Revolution, underway by the middle of the 18th
century and emerging first in England, is often cited as the single
most important development effecting architecture in the modern
world. 
The harnessing of coal and steam energy combined with new
mechanized technologies and industrial materials, especially iron,
steel and glass, brought sweeping changes throughout the fabric of
society. 
Architectural commissions from ecclesiastical, royal and noble
patrons were replaced by a new class of public authorities and
private patrons, the leaders of the modern industrialized state. 
A changed societal structure required new types of buildings
unimagined in a previous age: government offices, banks, hospitals,
theaters, libraries, educational institutions, museums, railroad
stations, factories, market places,warehouses, commercial buildings
such as department stores and a whole range of new types of
housing for every social class from factory workers to industrial
barons required innovative engineering and design solutions,
mostly within rapidly evolving urban settings. 
Supporting these fundamental changes in society was the
intellectual and aesthetic developments of the Enlightenment
a broad trend in 18th-century European philosophy fostering
rational thought in religious, political and economic matters
and the idea of promoting progress for a broad swath of
mankind
The emergence of technological developments in 19th-century
building systems, most importantly cast iron used for the
superstructure of many buildings, seemed as swift, startling
and unrelenting as digital technology seems in the 21st-
century. 
Exemplifying this development is the Bibliotheque Sainte-
Genevieve in Paris, designed by Henri Lebrouste and built
from 1842 to 1850.  The reading room recalls the monastic
libraries of Medieval and Renaissance Italy, but the enormous
scale is possible only by exploiting ironwork for two rows of
arches supported by stone outer walls and a line of iron
columns in the center of the space
More spectacular
structures of iron, such as
the Eiffel Tower and the
vast steam-filled railroad
stations of Paris and
London, demonstrate the
engineering marvels of the
period and the optimism of
a new age.
In 19th century several built form types
were built using the new construction
material
Some of the most spectacular built form types built
in 19th century includes the following
Bridges
Garden structures
Work places
Market places
Cultural buildings
Railheads
Religious buildings
Market halls of late 18th
-19th century
Großmarkthalle
(Wholesale Market Hall), located in the Ostend of
Frankfurt am Main, was the city's main
wholesale market, especially for fruit and
vegetables
The massive structure on the right bank of the Main, immediately
adjacent to Frankfurt's east port (Osthafen), was designed by Martin
Elsaesser.
It was inaugurated on October 25, 1928. With a length of 220 m, a
width of 50 m and a height of 17 to 23 m (722 by 164 by 55 to 75 ft),
it was the city's largest architectural unit at the time.
It provided 13,000 square metres (140,000 ft2) of space for a total of
130 stalls, most of which served large-scale customers, such as
hospitality businesses or retailers. The building, and its
surroundings, also hosted offices and storage space for wholesalers,
shipping companies and agencies.
From October 1941 onwards, the National Socialists
used the Großmarkthalle as a collecting point for the
deportation of Jewish men, women and children from
Frankfurt and its region. Since 1997, this locally
important role within the holocaust is recognised by a
commemorative plaque
The Großmarkthalle, locally known as "Gemieskersch"
(Frankfurt Hessian for "Gemüsekirche", literally
"vegetable church"), has been a listed building since
1984. In 2004, its function was transferred to the
"Frischezentrum Frankfurt" in the suburban district of
Kalbach-Riedberg, with a total of 128,000 square metres
(1,380,000 ft2) of space, including 23,000 square metres
(250,000 ft2) for retail purposes.
Architecture of the hall

•The Großmarkthalle Frankfurt am Main


is a massively built hall with a roof freely
spanning 50 m (164 ft).
•At the time of its construction it was the
world's widest monocoque construction.
•The entirety of the area is roofed by 15
barrel vaults with a support span of 36.9 m
(121 ft) and a vault span of 14.1 m (46 ft).
•The concrete "barrels" (Zeiss-Dywidag
barrels) are made of concrete and are only
7 cm (23/4 in) thick. Their basic form is a
half ellipse of 6 m (20 ft) height.
•It was realised between 1926 and 1928 by
Franz Dischinger and Ulrich Finsterwalder
.
•The hall itself was built in only 24 weeks
by the companies Dyckerhoff & Widmann
AG and Wayss & Freytag AG.The total
cost of constructions was 15,372,000 RM.
New use by the European Central Bank
On 1 January 2005, the City of Frankfurt transferred the
Großmarkthalle and its area to the European Central Bank (the sale
contract had been signed in 2002), which will erect its headquarters
there.
The hall will be preserved. It will mainly house the public functions
of the ECB, such as a visitors' area, the staff restaurant, as well as
press and conference spaces.
The space between the hall and the Main river will be taken up by
the Skytower, a complex of two intertwined 180 m (590 ft)
skyscrapers, designed by the Vienna-based Coop Himmelb(l)au.
It is projected for completion in 2011. A memorial for the deported
Jews will also be created, in close cooperation with the
Jewish Museum Frankfurt.
In November 2006, the planning committee of Frankfurt accepted a
proposal to de-list the so-called annexbauten, two transversal
buildings added to the narrow ends of the hall, originally serving
clerical and social functions.
The local heritage authorities have permitted the demolition of
these structures. Furthermore, the western third of the hall's roof,
destroyed in World War II and restored thereafter will be cut by a
diagonal structure placed partially inside and partially outside the
hall so as to "let the building's new function spread beyond its
confines
Market Hall
(1912)
Munich, Germany
THE FIRST LARGE MARKET HALL TO BE
BUILT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WAS
MOST LIKELY MUNICH'S
GROSSMARKTHALLE.
CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED IN
1912 ON THIS MAGNIFICENT STRUCTURE
THAT WAS BUILT NEAR THE THE
SüDBAHNHOF (SOUTH TRAIN STATION).
IT REPRESENTED A SIGNIFICANT STEP IN
THE EXPRESSION OF THE NEW MATERIAL
DUE NOT ONLY TO ITS SIZE (30,000 SQM,
18,000 M OF BEAMS AND 4,500 M OF
COLUMNS AND PILES), BUT ALSO THE
ARTICULATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION AS
SEEN IN THE CLERESTORY WINDOWS AND
END FACADES. SCHMIDT(1) FOUND THAT,
"ITS IMPRESSIVE VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT SEPARATES THIS
BUILDING FROM THE NORMAL WAREHOUSES AND GIVES IT
A VERY SPECIAL CHARACTER." ARCHITECT SCHACHNER(2)
STATED THAT, "...THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALL IS
DERIVED COMPLETELY FROM THE CONSTRUCTION, AND
THIS SHOULD BE EVIDENT IN THE EXTERIOR EXPRESSION
OF THE HALL."
THERE WAS A MOVEMENT BY A GROUP OF CITIZENS OF
MUNICH WITH A NUMBER OF "ENGROS" DEALERS TO SIMPLY
REPLACE THE EXISTING HALL WHICH WAS IN THE MIDDLE
OF THE CITY. THE WHOLESALERS, ON THE OTHER HAND,
WISHED TO MOVE THE HALL TO THE EDGE OF THE CITY
WHERE THE TRAIN CONNECTIONS WERE MORE
CONVENIENT. MUNICH'S COMMISSIONERS DECIDED ON THE
19TH OF APRIL, 1902 TO DESIGNATE A SITE OCCUPIED BY
OLD PUBLIC WAREHOUSES AT THE EDGE OF THE CITY NEAR
THE SUDBAHNHOF. THE EXISTING STRUCTURES WERE
RAZED IN 1903 AND THE NATIONAL RAILWAY (REICHSBAHN)
BEGAN LAYING NEW TRACKS FOR THE FUTURE EXPANSION.
The city architect, Richard Schachner, undertook
a trip in 1903-04 to visit contemporary large
market hall construction in large cities
throughout Europe (Brussels, Paris, Vienna,
Budapest, Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin). His
travels resulted in the decision to design a hall
completely in reinforced concrete.
Schachner stated goal(4) was that; "the entire
market hall, including the entrance hall, should be
read as a singular unit; it should give an enduring
friendly, bright and lofty impression.“
The original design called for four soaring individual halls
that had load-bearing structures of indeterminate fixed
frames with lower "connecting" roofs spanning the
distance between them.
This external expression of four halls remained as the
design developed. However, despite its appearance, the
market hall was actually one single floor space of 10,860
sqm in which the ceiling was articulated with two types of
The floor plans and the form of the hall's
cross-section had been designed by the
architect who also stated that they could
not be changed; they were already
determined. The high profile and general
dimensions of the frames were, under all
circumstances, to remain as they had been
Rueb's structural calculations showed that it would be best to
design the main spaces as two-hinged frames instead of fixed
frames. This small change in the structural system allowed a
simplification on many levels: the long and complicated
calculation of all of the various loading conditions of an
indeterminate structure would be eliminated, and the erection
would be simplified in that the lower frames would be
constructed first and then used to support the formwork for
the frames.
Hinges of pieces of roofing-paper placed in the shuttering of
the lower frames separated the building's superstructure into
two parts: the two hinged frames which underwent the
greatest temperature differences, and the lower frames and
basement with their almost constant temperature. Thus, a
slight structural design variation resulted in great benefits.
Each of the main halls had a total clear height of
20 m, length of 97.6 m, and width of 16.5 m.
Between these spaces were lower buildings of
simple stiff skeletons with a height of 7.20 m and
width of 8.80 m
The two-hinged frames of the main halls were
supported by the lower buildings, and had a
spacing of 8.84 m along the length of the hall
with a height of 12.80 m.
The forms for the frames were pre-fabricated in
pieces on the building site and assembled at the
point immediately below where they were to be
used. These pieces were then hoisted into place
with a steam-crane and the concrete rammed
into the formwork
A basement with an average height
of 5.1 m lay below the entire market
hall. This is where one found the
temperate, cold and deep-freeze
storage areas.
As excavation commenced, it was
found that the site contained high
quality gravel and sand. This
material was sorted and
immediately used in the pouring of
the footings and walls of the
foundations. That material which
could not be immediately used was
stored next to the site for later use.
A building truly related to its site.
The form of this hall calls to mind a cross between a Cathedral
and a warehouse. Indeed, the market hall in Munich was a
cathedral to the "new master" of the economy.
The architectural intention to create the representational
association with exactly these images was the dictating factor for
the choice of structural form.
The articulation of the interior space was dependent upon the
skeletal nature of the load-bearing structure. The primary,
secondary and tertiary elements are clear. One can also note in
the same view that the addition of the structurally required
hinges had absolutely no effect on the desired architectural
expression.
The gabled-roof was not set upon an arched
interior, but is an exposed load-bearing
structure. And yet, the weather skin of the
Outside was of the traditional tiles. The
acceptance, or possibility, to directly show the
reinforced concrete was not yet available
Leipzig Market Hall 

the city of Leipzig has fundamentally shaped the history of Saxony


and of Germany. Leipzig has always been known as a place of
commerce and still has a large trade fair ground.
Market Hall Leipzig front view top
view
Central Market Hall

Budapest’s huge Central Market Hall, also


known as the Great Market Hall, is the city's
largest indoor market.
The beautiful historic structure ,Just prior to the
turn of the 20th century, when the cities of Buda,
Pest, and Obuda merged to form one, city
leaders recognized a need for more and better
market places for the burgeoning city.
The decision was made to build covered
markets similar to those in larger European
cities, such as Paris.
The Great Market Hall and would be situated on the Pest end of the
Liberty Bridge. A competition was held to determine the architect
for this grand market. Samu Petz was chosen and construction
commenced in 1894.
The cavernous structure was supported by slender steel
columns, allowing for extensive sunlight to make its way
into the market. The attractive outside facade was by
Zsolnay, a Hungarian tile factory with an international
reputation.
Sometimes referred to as “a symphony in iron”,
this ornate market had a canal that ran through
the center, allowing goods to be delivered to the
market’s traders via barge.
According to historic records, the early market
was divided down the center by a thruway for
wagons. Wholesalers were situated on the west
and retailers on the east.
There were also designated areas for meat
traders, fish stalls, poultry stalls, and vegetable,
fruit, cheese, and butter stands.
Budapest’s Central Market Hall was extensively damaged
during World War II and in their haste to rebuild,
contractors took short cuts and the newly reconstructed
market lacked the splendor and strength of the original. It
closed in 1991 after it was deemed hazardous and near
collapse.
a veiw of meat shop
inside the market

Hungarian arts and


crafts exhibition
Rebuilding the Market
In the mid-1990s, the city government decided to restore
this grand monument.
Renovations were made to both the interior and exterior
and new Zsolnay tiles were crafted for the roof. The
result was a clean, bright, colorful new market that
serves the needs of the city’s residents and its many
visitors.

one can find three stories of stalls selling a variety of


wares. On the busy ground level, there are lots of fruit
and vegetable vendors. In the basement, there’s a
supermarket, a number of fishmongers, and vendors
selling game meat. On the upper floor, beautiful
Hungarian arts and crafts are the most common fare
COVERED MARKET HALL IN
BERLIN,
1865-1868
The 19th century brought the large commercial
building into the modern metropolis. As a result of
growth in industrial production, space devoted to
the sale and distribution of goods in cities expanded
rapidly.
Various architectural solutions were adopted to
meet the new requirements, including large covered
markets, where great quantities of goods could be
sold under one roof, and arcades made up of roofed
pedestrian streets lined with shops.
The purposes for which covered markets were built
dictated the shape of the interior. This was not
unlike the nave of a church, often widened by
transepts, with stalls arranged around the sides and
covered by glazed roofs.
Such a layout was seen in Victor Baltard's great
development of the Halles Centrales in Paris (1851
—66), and Friedrich Hitzig's covered market in
Berlin (1865-68), lit by gaslight and complete with
storage space.
The shopping arcade meant that articles for sale
could be temptingly displayed in the windows,
illuminated by natural light from the glass root, or
by gaslight.
Among the most attractive were the Galerie
d'Orleans in Paris ( 1829) bv Fontaine and Percier;
the Burlington Arcade in London (1818-19)
designed by Samuel Ware; the Galleria Vittorio
Emmanuele II (1865—77) in Milan; and the
Cleveland Arcade in Ohio (1889-90).
  
Caste iron column support the six – aisled
building with total surface area of 5300 square
metres.
From the point of hygiene , this market hall
represented significant progress .
It had running water for fish vendor’s sinks,
toilet facilities and gas lighting .
Yet the private enterprises was not a success .
after the early bankruptcy of its operators, the
halls stood empty until being rebuild into a
circus in 1874.
It was finally redesigned by Hans poelzig to
become Max Reinhardt's Grobes Schauspielhaus
in 1919.
Victor Baltard and Felix Callet
Central Market Halls in
paris,1854-1857 extended
1860-1866
A hall begun in 1851, an unhappy combination
of stone and iron, was abandoned in mid-
construction, probably in the instruction of
napoleon III.
The new city perfect Georges – Eugene
Haussman’s most important architectural
colleague, therefore proposed a new design
which was subsequently executed.
In this all the modern building materials has
been used that includes glass, iron, and steel
Interior of market
hall
GALLERIES OF LATE 18 TH

– EARLY 20TH CENTURY

Galleries were covered shopping street


that offered protection from the weather
. The covered streets were flanked by an
arcade of shops
Galleria Vittorio
Emmanuele II
built between 1864 and 1878.
The Vittorio Emanuele Gallery has a 19th century
atmosphere, enhanced by the elegance of some of Milan's
finest stores. The Galleria was designed by architect
Giuseppe Mengoni, Flanking the Piazza dell Duomo is the
grand structure known as the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II.
Designed in 1861 and built between 1865 and 1877, this
beatiful piece of architecture was the first of its kind to
incorporate the elements of iron and glass which form its
vaulted ceilings and central dome. Tragically, the architect,
Giuseppe Mengoni fell to his death while inspecting the
decorative details of the dome just two days before King
Vittorio Emanuele led the galleria's opening ceremony.
Main entrance to the
This vast Belle gallery
Epoque shopping
arcade was built
to link the Piazza
del Duomo to the
Piazza della Scala
and soon became
Milan’s
conservatory.
Winter and
summer, Milanesi
can be seen here,
escaping the rain,
browsing the
exclusive shops
and sipping
This is essentially a roofed-over shopping center, but a
very elegant and historical one, built from 1865 to 1867
in the very center of Milan. It was named after the then-
reigning king of Italy, who was in fact the first king of
Italy after unification. it's very convenient because it's the
shortest way to walk between the Cathedral Square
(Piazza Duomo) and the opera house (Teatro alla Scala).
This vast Belle Epoque shopping arcade was built to link the
Piazza del Duomo to the Piazza della Scala and soon became
Milan’s conservatory. The cross-shaped Vittorio Emanuele
Gallery is another attraction of Milan, known all over the
world. It is actually said that is the most famous shopping
center..
Two huge
triumphal
archways open in
the Dome square
on one side and in
Piazza della Scala
on the other side.
The center of the
gallery is
dominated by the
impressive glass
and iron dome and
each side hosts
book and record
shops, coffee
The grand scale and
detail of this beautiful
building is impressive!
The decorative details
inside are equally
impressive--beautiful
marble and mosaic
floors or up to the
stained-glass dome. One
can find upscale bistro
restaurants and shops mosaic picture of this bull in
such as Prada and Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Bernasconi. Just outside is a tradition for Italians
there is a sidewalk cafe
where one may sample
a few Italian dishes and
Galerie Vivienne

The Galerie Vivienne was


constructed in 1823 by
Marchoux, at the time president
of the Chambre des Notaires; he
acquired for this purpose no. 6
rue Vivienne, no. 4 rue des Petits
Champs, and the Passage des
Petits-Pères, which were all
joined together in a single
complex just behind the
Bibliothèque Nationale
Inside the
arcade
Entrance to the Seating space inside
gallery the arcade
Elegant spiral
staircase in iron .
One of the most
aesthetically
important
element in the
gallery

There are still quite a few


interesting shops of designers,
antiques and old postcards
and
Designer flooring has been
created throughout
The gallery has number of
entrance gate

The entrance on the side of rue des


Petits Champs
The entrance to the The above entrance in
arcade on the side of rue 1825
Vivienne
Circular patterns
Glass was used as a design
were used to
element as well as for the
design the
entrance of light
floorings
This is the best-preserved of
the famed 19th-century
shopping arcades in Paris. The
Neo-classic bas-reliefs and
luxurious star patterns in the
Italian mosaic floor are
particularly impressive to
modern eyes. The different
varieties of stone have worn
unevenly over the past 160
years. The floor’s creator, G.
Facchina, cleverly tiled his
name and Paris address into
several thresholds around the
Galerie in a decorative act of
self-promotion. I often wonder if
Above his floor, the walls are decorated in a celebration of
commerce, with carved cornucopia, anchors, wheat, and
beehives; unlike many Paris arcades, which have fallen
into shabbiness, here the paint is fresh and the glass roof
is clean. Structurally, the arcades’ iron frames support
panels of glass that allow light into the interior space,
much like a greenhouse
Several of the roof panels even open
to allow fresh air to circulate. Iron
beams are really the first artificial
construction material introduced
into European building, which makes
architecture of the 1820s and
onwards consistently revolutionary.
These passageways were especially
radical at night, when they were
illuminated by the very latest
CONCLUSION
The emergence of the technological developments
in 19th century building systems, most importantly
caste iron used for the superstructures, seemed as
swift, startling and unrelenting as digital
technology seems in the 21st century
The End

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