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Antenna Continues..
By S. Naiman
TE (Assistant Lecturer)
Lecture 11
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Radar Equation
Radar is basically a means of gathering information
about distant objects or targets by sending
electromagnetic on them and analyzing the echoes
EM
ECHOES
Radar antenna target
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The RADAR Equation

Radar acronym meaning Radio Detection and
Ranging
Pulses of RF energy directed at target
Target reflects energy back to receiver
Time for return of the pulses is directly proportional to the
distance to the target
Terms
-Radar cross section or scattering cross section
Definition
Equivalent area intercepting that amount of
power which when scattered isotropically
produces at the radar receiver a power density
which is equal to that scattered by the actual
target.
o
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The radar equation relates Pr = received
power to:
parameters of the radar system
targets
scattering properties
target location
Two types of targets:
Point - building, plane, etc
distributed - rain, snow
The RADAR Equation

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First, let's derive the radar equation for a point target (it's
easier than for distributed targets).
For an isotropic antenna (one that transmits in all directions)
transmitting at some power Pt, the power density at the
target will be


With a directional antenna, the power density at the target
will be


Where G is the gain due to beam being more focused.

Typical gain for meteorological radars are about 30-50dB
The RADAR Equation
2
4 r
Pt
D
P
t
=
2
4 r
GPt
D
P
t
=
6
How much energy is intercepted by the target?
The energy intercepted by the target will be:
where is the back scattering cross section of the target. NOTE: is not
necessarily equal to the geometrical cross section.
2
4 r
GPt
t
o
o o
The amount of energy which gets back to the antenna is:
The amount of power that is collected by the antenna is
where [Pr] =watts, Ae =effective area of the antenna
=
refl
P
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t

4
2
= A
Isotropic radiator G=1
t

8
3
2
= A
Dipole antenna
Microwave dishes
A= 50-65% of the physical area
Effective area
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The gain can be express in terms of the effective area of the
antenna and the wavelength of the radar by:
or
so substitution gives
This is the radar equation for a point target.
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Assignment
Calculate the minimum peak transmitted
power needed in a pulsed radar required
to detect a target of echoing
at a range of 100km.
Given the following parameters.
Atmospheric attenution 0.007dB/km
Frequency 1.5GHz
Antenna gain 40dB
Receiver threshold level -110dBm
2
12m
tgt
= o
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Communicating antennas
The communication between a transmitting and a
receiving antenna can be analyzed with the help
of the concept of gain and effective area.


Consider two antennas oriented towards the
maximal gain of each other and separated by a
distance r, as shown in
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Friis transmission equation

The analysis and design of wireless
communication systems requires the use of
the Friis transmission equation.
It relates the power, which is fed to the
transmitting antenna, to the power, which is
received by the receiving antenna, when the
two antennas are separated by a large
enough distance

This means that the two antennas are positioned in
each others far zones.
We derive Friis equation below.

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Communicating antennas
The incident power
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From the incident power density PT, the receiving
antenna extracts power PR given in terms of the
effective area AR as follows
This is known as the Friis formula for communicating
antennas Replacing GT in terms of the transmitting
antennas effective area AT, that is, GT = 4AT/2, becomes:
Friis formula
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Replacing, we obtain:

The effect of the propagation path, which causes PR to
attenuate with the square of the distance r, can be
quantified by defining the free-space loss and gain by
t

4
2
R
G
R
A =
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Such a gain model for communicating antennas is
illustrated in above Fig. An additional loss factor,
Gother = 1/Lother, may be introduced, if necessary,
representing other losses, such as atmospheric
absorption and scattering.
It is customary to express additively in dB, where
(PR)dB= 10 log10 PR, (GT)dB= 10 log10 GT, etc.:
can be written as the product of the transmit and
receive gains and the propagation loss factor:
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A geosynchronous satellite is transmitting a TV
signal to an earth-based station at a distance
of 40,000 km. Assume that the dish antennas
of the satellite and the earth station have
diameters of 0.5m and 5m respectively, and
aperture efficiencies of 60%. If the satellites
transmitter power is 6 W and the downlink
frequency 4 GHz, calculate the antenna gains
in dB and the amount of received power.
Examples
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Solution:
The wavelength at 4 GHz is = 7.5 cm.
The antenna gains are calculated by:

G = ea d
2
Gsat = 263.2 = 24 dB, Gearth = 26320 = 44
dB

Because the ratio of the earth and satellite
antenna diameters is 10, the corresponding
gains will differ by a ratio of 100, or 20 dB. The
satellites transmitter power is in dB
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PT = 10 log10(6)= 8 dBW, and the free-space
loss and gain:



= 4 1019 Lf = 196 dB, Gf = 196 dB
It follows that the received power will be in dB:
PR = PT + GT Lf + GR = 8 + 24 196 + 44
= 120 dBW PR = 1012 W
or, PR = 1 pW (pico-watt).
Thus, the received power is extremely small.

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What is NOT an antenna!
Almost anything can behave as an antenna.

Most equipment radiates unwanted signals via
holes in the case and cables connected to the
case. Holes and cables behave as antennas.

This gives rise to the area called
electromagnetic compatibility or EMC in which
we try to control the amount of unwanted radiation
from equipment.
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Intended antennas
Radiocommunication antennas
Measuring antennas, EM sensors, probes
EM applicators (Industrial, Medical)
Unintended antennas
Radiating (any conductor/ installation carrying
electrical current:
e.g. electrical installation of vehicles)
Receiving/ Re-radiating (any conducting
structure/ installation irradiated by EM waves)
Stationary (e.g. antenna masts or power line wires)
Time-varying (e.g. windmill or helicopter propellers)
Transient (e.g. aeroplanes, missiles)
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What remain
effect of antenna height,
antenna coupling,
directional antennae,
dipole arrays,
three element dipole array,
Yagi Uda antenna,
the rhombic antenna;
UHF and microwave aerials; a selection of the
aerials

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Length Calculations
The radiation pattern depends mainly on the length of the
antenna. The length of an antenna can be calculated using the
following equation, the velocity factor of wire is 95% compare
to air.



where c is the speed of light
L is the length in meters
f is frequency in Hertz
and k is the velocity factor
k
f
c
L =
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Length Calculations
Example
It is required that an antenna of the half-dipole type
be built to receive broadcast at 100 MHz, calculate
the optimum length of the antenna.
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Types of Antennas
Isotropic antenna (idealized)
Radiates power equally in all
directions
Dipole antennas
Half-wave dipole antenna (or
Hertz antenna)
Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or
Marconi antenna)
Hertzian
Short antenna
Loop antenna

Parabolic Reflective Antenna
Used for terrestrial microwave
and satellite applications
Larger the diameter, the more
tightly directional is the beam
< l
4 10

< l
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Types of antenna
For frequencies 1GHz, dipoles are used
(cheap and easy to make). They are used
singly or in arrays.


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Elementary Doublet
The simplest type of antenna is the Elementary
Doublet.
Elementary Doublet has uniform current throughout
its length
Is an electrically short dipole and is often referred to
Short dipole
Elementary dipole
Hertzian dipole
Electrically short means short compare with one-half
wavelength but not necessarily one with a uniform current.
Any dipole that is less than one tenth wavelength long
is considered electrically short.
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Elementary Doublet
With the aid of Maxwell's equations we can have
radiation field and power density as follows
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R
Il

u t

sin 60
=

Electric field intensity (Volts per meter)


wavelength (meters)
l end to end length of the dipole (meters)
I Dipole current (amperes rms)
R Distance from the dipole (meters)
angle btn the axis of the antenna and the
direction of radiation
u
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Relative power density pattern
2 2
2 2 2
sin 30
R
l I

u t
=
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Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna)
When the total length of the two wires is half
the wavelength, the antenna is called a half
wave dipole. This is also known as the Hertz
antenna.


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Half wave dipole
a linear half wave dipole is one of the most
widely used antenna at frequencies above
2MHz.
frequencies below 2MHz , the physical
length of a half-wavelength antenna is
prohibitive.
Half wave dipole is referred to as a Hertz
antenna
Hertz antenna is a resonant antenna
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Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi
antenna)
- In this case, the total length of the two wires is a
quarter of the wavelength.
- This type of antenna is also referred to as the Marconi
antenna.
- It is normally used at frequencies below 2 MHz.
- This antenna requires a conducting path to ground.
- The ground is thus used as the other quarter
wavelength. Electrically therefore it acts as a half
wavelength.
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Antenna Arrays (dipole arrays)
An antenna arrays is formed when two or more
antenna elements are combined to form a single
antenna.
The elements are placed in such a way that their
radiation fields interact with each other,
producing a total radiation pattern that is vector
sum of individual fields.

Two types of antenna elements are :
Driven and
Parasitic (non-driven)
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Driven elements are directly connected to the
transmission line and receive power from or
are driven by the source.

Parasitic element are not connected to the
TL, they receive power energy only through
mutual induction with driven element or
another parasitic element

The back-reflector gives a wave a second chance
at being detected. This increases the effective area
of the dipole

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Parasitic element that is longer than the
driven element from which it receives
energy is called reflector
(reduce signal strength in its direction and increase it in
the opposite direction)

Parasitic element that is shorter than the
driven element is called director
(increases signal strength in its direction and reduce it in
the opposite direction)

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Driven Arrays
There are many types of driven arrays.
The four most common types are:
Collinear array
Broadside array
Log Periodic Array
Yagi-Uda Array
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Collinear Array
The collinear array consists of /2 dipoles
oriented end-to-end. The center dipole is fed by
the transmitter and sections of shorted
transmission line known as phasing lines connect
the ends of the dipoles as shown below.
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Driven Collinear
Driven array multi-element antenna in which all
the elements are excited through a transmission
line

Collinear arrayany combination of wavelength
elements in which all the elements are excited by a
connected transmission line
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BROADSIDE ARRAY
A broadside array consists of an array of dipoles
mounted one above another as shown below.
Each dipole has its own feed line and the lengths of
all feed lines are equal so that the currents in all the
dipoles are in phase.
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Log Periodic Dipole Array
LPDA is one antenna that almost everyone over 40
years old has seen.
They were used for years as TV antennas.

The chief advantage of an LPDA is that it is frequency-
independent. Its input impedance and gain remain
more or less constant over its operating bandwidth,
which can be very large.

Although an LPDA contains a large number of dipole
elements, only 2 or 3 are active at any given
frequency in the operating range.

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The log periodic antenna is characterized by three
interrelated parameters,,, and as well as the minimum
and maximum operating frequencies, fMIN and fMAX.
The diagram below shows the relationship between these
parameters.
The electromagnetic fields produced by these active elements add up to
produce a unidirectional radiation pattern, in which maximum radiation is
off the small end of the array.
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Unlike many antenna arrays, the design equations
for the LPDA are relatively simple to work with.
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.


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lengths element respective is L where
L
L
L
L
L
L
......
4
3
3
2
2
1
= = = = t
.
. sin
.....
1
4
3
3
2
2
1
shortest is D
them g clo angle of apex and
elements between spacings represents D where
D
D
D
D
D
D
= = = = t
2
tan
2
1
1
o
=
D
L
Alpha is the angle of the apex of tapered elements and is
typically 30 degrees.
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Yagi Uda antenna
Is an array consisting of a driven element and one or more
parasitic elements. Used at HF and VHF television receiving
antenna
Reflectors and Directors
It is sometimes necessary to focus power in one particular
direction. This can be done by the use of reflectors and
directors.
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Yagi-Uda Antennas
Yagi-Uda antennas are intended to provide a high gain
but have a relatively narrow bandwidth
There is one excited or driven element, usually a dipole
or a folded dipole
There are two or more passive elements which direct
the energy of the driven element into the main beam.

the reflector element(s) is typically slightly longer than
the half-wavelength, 0.58
the director elements are typically slightly shorter than
the half-wavelength, 0.45
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Parasitic Array Yagi-Uda
Array antennas can be used to increase directivity.
Parasitic array does not require a direct
connection to each element by a feed network.
The parasite elements acquire their excitation from
near field coupling by the driven element.
A Yagi-Uda antenna is a linear array of parallel
dipoles.
The basic Yagi unit consists of three elements:
1. Driver or driven element
2. Reflector
3. Director
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Yagi-Uda Antenna
Develops an endfire radiation pattern.
Optimum spacing for gain of a reflector and
driven element is 0.15 to 0.25 wavelengths
Director to director spacings are 0.2 to 0.35
wavelengths apart.
Reflector length is typically 0.5 wavelengths or
1.05 that of the driven element.
The driven element is calculated at resonance
without the presence of parasitic elements.
The directors are usually 10 to 20% shorter than
at resonance.

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Effective area can also be increased by using a Yagi
antenna.
Parasitic antennas direct the wave towards the dipole.
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Seven element Yagi-uda
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Yagi-Uda antennas
Gain is related to boom length and number of directors.
Max directivity of a 3 element Yagi is 9 dBi or 7dBd.
Addition of directors up to 5 or 6 provides significant
increase in gain. Addition of more directors has much
less impact on gain.
Increasing N from 3 to 4 results in 1 dB increase.
Adding a director to go from 9 to 10 presents a 0.2 dB
gain improvement.
Adding more reflectors has minimal impact on gain
however does impact on feedpoint Z and the backlobe.
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Loop Antennas
All antennas discussed so far have used radiating
elements that were linear conductors.
It is also possible to make antennas from
conductors formed into closed loops. There are
two broad categories of loop antennas:

Small loops, which contain no more than 0.085
wavelengths (~l/12) of wire

Large loops, which contain approximately 1
wavelength of wire.
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Small Loop Antennas

A small loop antenna is one whose
circumference contains no more than 0.085
wavelengths of wire.
In such a short conductor, we may consider the
current, at any moment in time to be constant.

This is quite different from a dipole, whose
current was a maximum at the feed point and
zero at the ends of the antenna. The small loop
antenna can consist of a single turn loop or a
multi-turn loop as shown below:
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Microwave antenna
Horn antenna
Parabolic reflector

Wideband and special purpose antennas
Folded antenna
Helical antenna
Discone antenna
Log-periodic dipole array

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