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Chapter 5 The Processor: Datapath and Control

Implementation of Instruction sets

An instruction set architecture is an interface that defines the hardware operations which are available to software. Any instruction set can be implemented in many different ways. Over the next few weeks well see several possibilities. In a basic single-cycle implementation all operations take the same amount of timea single cycle. In a multicycle implementation all instructions is executed in multiple clock cycles. Finally, pipelining lets a processor overlap the execution of several instructions, potentially leading to big performance gains.

Datapath element - A funtional unit which is used to operate on or hold data within a pracessor. 1 . Program counter [ PC ] - The register which holds the address of current instruction.


Instruction Memory
Memory unit to store instructions of a program and supply instructions given an address.

Instruction Fetching
The CPU is always in an infinite loop, fetching instructions from memory and executing them. The program counter or PC register holds the address of the current instruction. MIPS instructions are each four bytes long, so the PC should be incremented by four to read the next instruction in sequence.

Register File Our register file stores thirty-two 32bit values. Each register specifier is 5 bits long. You can read from two registers at a time. RegWrite is 1 if a register should be written.

Heres a simple ALU with five operations, selected by ALU control signal which is 4 bits wide.

Executing an R-type instruction

1. Read an instruction from the instruction memory. 2. The source registers, specified by instruction fields rs and rt, should be read from the register file. 3. The ALU performs the desired operation. 4. Its result is stored in the destination register, which is specified by field rd of the instruction word.

R Type

Executing an I- Type Instructions

1. Read an instruction from the

instruction memory. 2. For an instruction like lw $t0, 4($s2), the base register $s2 is added with the sign-extended constant [ 4 ] to get a data memory address. 5.Data is read from data memory by supplying an address. 4. Its result is stored in the destination register, which is specified by field rt of the instruction word.



Need of Multiplexors
The arithmetic and logical instructions use the ALU with inputs coming from two registers.The memory instructions use ALU to do address calculation. 1 input register , 2nd input sign extend. The value stored into destination register comes from ALU(R Type instructions) or memory (load).

Steps in executing branches

1. Fetch the instruction, like beq $s1, $s2, offset from memory. 2. Read the source registers, $s1 and $s2, from the register file. 3. Compare the values by subtracting them in the ALU. 4. If the subtraction result is 0, the source operands were equal and the PC should be loaded with the target address, PC + 4 + (offset x 4). 5. Otherwise the branch should not be taken, and the PC should just be incremented to PC + 4 to fetch the next instruction sequentially.

Need for additional multiplexors

An additional multiplexor is required to select either the sequentially following instruction address (PC+4) or branch target address to be written into the PC. The destination register is in one of the 2 places.For a load, it is in bit positions 20:16(rt), while for an R Type instruction, it is in bit positions 15:11(rd).Thus we will need to add a multiplexor to select which field of instruction is used to indicate the register number to be written .

Branching Hardware

Final Datapath

rs rt rd

R-Type Instruction Path

Lw instruction datapath

Sw instruction Datapath

beq instruction datapath

J - Format 31 26 Op 25 address o

For j instruction

Target address = PC[31-28] (offset address << 2)

Datapath with control unit

ALU control lines 0000 0001 0010 0110

Function AND