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Multiplexing is a technique whereby a number of independent signals can be combined into a composite signal suitable for transmission over a common channel. This operation requires that the signals be kept apart so that they do not interfere with each other, and thus they can be separated at the receiving end. This is accomplished by separating the signals either in frequency or in time. The technique of separating the signals in frequency is referred to as frequencydivision multiplexing (FDM), whereas the technique of separating the signals in time is called time-division multiplexing (TDM).

A block diagram of an FDM system

The incoming message signals are assumed to be of the low-pass type, but their spectra do not necessarily have nonzero values all the way down to zero frequency. Following each signal input, we have shown a low-pass filter, which is designed to remove high-frequency components that do not contribute significantly to signal representation but are capable of disturbing other message signals that share the common channel. These low-pass filters may be omitted only if the input signals are sufficiently band-limited initially. The filtered signals are applied to modulators that shift the frequency ranges of the signals so as to occupy mutually exclusive frequency intervals. The necessary carrier frequencies, to perform these frequency translations, are obtained from a carrier supply. the most widely used method of modulation in frequency-division multiplexing is single-sideband modulation, which requires a bandwidth that is approximately equal to that of the original message signal.

The band-pass filters following the modulators are used to restrict the band of each modulated wave to its prescribed range. The resulting band-pass filter outputs are next combined in parallel to form the input to the common channel. At the receiving terminal, a bank of band-pass filters, with their inputs connected in parallel, is used to separate the message signals on a frequencyoccupancy basis. Finally, the original message signals are recovered by individual demodulators.



In radio broadcasting, a central transmitter is used to radiate message signals for reception at a large number of remote points.

The message signals transmitted are usually intended for entertainment purposes.
There are three general types of radio broadcasting,
AM broadcasting, which uses standard amplitude modulation; FM broadcasting, which uses frequency modulation; and television broadcasting, which uses amplitude modulation of one carrier for picture transmission and frequency modulation of a second carrier for sound transmission.

The usual AM radio receiver is of the super heterodyne type, which is represented schematically in Fig.. Basically, the receiver consists of a radio frequency (RF) section, a mixer and local oscillator, an intermediate frequency (IF) section, and a demodulator. Typical frequency parameters of commercial AM radio are:
RF carrier range = 0.535-1.605 MHz Mid-band frequency of IF section = 455 kHz

IF bandwidth = 10 kHz

RF Stage
a(t) (radio frequency) RF Amplifier & RF BPF b(t)

Converter (Multiplier)

IF Stage
d(t) (intermediate frequency) IF Amplifier & IF BPF e(t)

Envelope Detector
f(t) Diode, Capacitor, Resistor, & DC blocker

Audio Stage
Power amplifier



Local Oscillator
Ganged RF BPF and Oscillator cos[(c+IF)t]

The incoming amplitude modulated wave is picked up by the receiving antenna and amplified in the RF section, which is tuned to the carrier frequency of the incoming wave. The combination of mixer and local oscillator (of adjustable frequency) provides a frequency conversion or heterodyning function, whereby the incoming signal is converted to a predetermined fixed intermediate frequency, usually lower than the signal frequency. This frequency conversion is achieved without disturbing the relation of the sidebands to the carrier. The result of this conversion is to produce an intermediate-frequency carrier defined by,

f IF f RF f LO
where fLO is the frequency of the local oscillator and fRF is the carrier frequency of the incoming RF signal. We refer to fIF as the intermediate frequency (IF). because the signal is neither at the original input frequency nor at the final baseband frequency.

The mixer-local oscillator combination is sometimes referred to as the first detector, in which case the demodulator is called the second detector. The IF section consists of one or more stages of tuned amplification, with a bandwidth corresponding to that required for the' particular type of signal that the receiver is intended to handle.

This IF section provides the most of the amplification and selectivity in the receiver. The output of the IF section is applied to an envelope detector, the purpose of which is to recover the baseband signal.
The final operation in the receiver is the power amplification of the recovered message. The loudspeaker constitutes the load of the power amplifier. The super heterodyne operation refers to the frequency conversion from, the variable carrier frequency of the incoming RF signal to the fixed IF signal.

Television (TV) refers to the transmission of pictures in motion by means of electrical signals. To accomplish this transmission, each complete picture has to be sequentially scanned. The scanning process is carried out in a TV camera. In a black-and-white TV, the camera contains optics designed to focus an image on a photocathode that consists of a large number of photo sensitive elements.

The charge pattern so generated on the photosensitive surface is scanned by an electron beam, thereby producing an output current that varies temporally in accordance with the way in which the brightness of the original picture varies spatially from one point to another. The resulting output current is called the video signal.

The type of scanning used in television is called a raster scan; It is somewhat analogous to the manner in which we read a printed paper in that the scanning is performed from left to right on a line-by-line basis. In particular, a picture is divided into 525 lines that constitute a frame. Each frame is decomposed into two interlaced fields, each one of which consists of 262.5 lines. For convenience of presentation, we will refer to the two fields as I and II.


The lines of field I are depicted as solid lines, and those of field II are depicted dashed lines. The start and end of each field are also included in the figure. Field I is scanned first. The scanning spot of the TV camera moves with constant velocity across each line of the field from left to right. When the end of a particular line is reached, the scanning spot quickly flies back in a horizontal direction) to the start of the next line down in the field. This fly back is called the horizontal retrace. The scanning process described here is continued until the whole field has been accounted for. When this condition is reached, the scanning spot moves quickly (in a vertical direction) from the end of field I to the start of field II. This second fly back is lied the vertical retrace. Field II is treated in the same fashion as field I. the time taken for each field to be scanned is 1/60 second. Correspondingly, the time taken for a frame or a complete picture to be scanned is 1/30 second.

With 525 lines in a frame, the line scanning frequency equals 6.75 kHz.

Thus, by flashing 30 still pictures per second on the display tube of the TV receiver, the human eye perceives them to be moving pictures. This effect is due to a phenomenon known as the persistence of vision.

Video waveform for One full line of TV picture


Video Bandwidth
The reproduction quality of a TV picture is limited by two basic factors: The number of lines available in a raster scan, which limits resolution of the picture in the vertical direction. The channel bandwidth available for transmitting the video signal, which limits resolution of the picture in the horizontal direction.

For each direction, resolution is expressed in terms of the maximum number of lines alternating between black and white that can be resolved in the TV image along the pertinent direction by a human observer.


Choice of Modulation
The type of modulation chosen to transmit the video signal is influenced by two factors: 1. The video signal exhibits a large bandwidth and significant low-frequency content. This suggests the use of vestigial sideband modulation. 2. The circuitry used for demodulation in the receiver should be simple and therefore cheap. This suggests the use of envelope detection, which requires the addition of a carrier to the VSB modulated wave.


With regard to point 1, although there is a basic desire to conserve bandwidth, nevertheless in commercial TV broadcasting the transmitted signal is not quite VSB-modulated. The reason is that at the transmitter the power levels are high, with the result that if would be expensive to rigidly control the transition region.

Instead, a VSB filter is inserted in each receiver where the power levels are low. The overall performance is the same as conventional vestigial-sideband modulation except for some wasted power and bandwidth. These remarks are illustrated in Fig.
In particular, part a of the figure shows the idealized spectrum of a trans mitted TV signal. The upper sideband, 25% of the lower sideband, and the picture carrier are transmitted. The frequency response of the VSB filter used to do the required spectrum shaping in the receiver is shown in part b of the figure.



With regard to point 2, the use of envelope detection (applied to a VSB modulated wave plus carrier) produces waveform distortion in the message signal recovered at the .detector output. The distortion is contributed by the quadrature component of the VSB wave. The channel bandwidth used for NTSC TV broadcast is 6 MHz; This channel bandwidth not only accommodates the bandwidth requirement of the VSBmodulated video signal but also provides for the accompanying sound signal that modulates a carrier of its own. The values presented on the frequency axis in parts (a) and (b) of Fig. pertain to a specific TV channel. According to this figure, the picture carrier frequency is at 55.75 MHz, and the sound carrier frequency is at 59.75 MHz Note, however, that the information content of the TV signal lies in a baseband spectrum extending from l.25 MHz below the picture carrier to 4.5 MHz above it.


Color Television
The transmission of color in commercial TV broadcasting is based on the premise that all colors found in nature can be approximated by mixing three additive primary colors: red, green, and blue. These three primary colors are represented by the video signals mR(t), mG(t), and mB(t), respectively. In the standard color-television system, the three signals that are transmitted have the form, mL(t) = 0.30 mR(t) + 0.59 mG(t) + 0.11 mB(t) mI(t) = 0.60 mR(t) - 0.28 mG(t) - 0.32 mB(t) mQ(t) = 0.21mR(t) - 0.52mG(t) + 0.31mB(t) The signal mL(t) is called the luminance signal,: when received on a conventional monochrome television receiver, it produces a black-and-white version of the color picture. The signals mI(t) and mQ(t) are called the chrominance signals; they indicate the way the color of the picture departs from shades of gray.

mR(t) = mL(t) - O.96mI(t) + 0.62mQ(t) mG(t) = mL(t) - 0.28mI(t) - O.64mQ(t) mB(t) = mL(t) - 1.10mI(t) + 1.70mQ(t) The luminance signal mL(t) is assigned the entire 4.2 MHz bandwidth. Owing to certain properties of human vision, tests show that if the nominal bandwidths of the chrominance signals mI(t) and mQ(t) are 1.6 MHz and 0.6 MHz, respectively, then satisfactory color reproduction is possible.


The composite video signal m(t) is thus described by,

m(t ) m L (t ) m I (t ) cos(2f cct ) mQ (t ) sin(2f cct ) m IH (t ) sin(2f cct )

The chrominance subcarrier frequency fee is equal to 455/2 times the horizontalsweep frequency or line-scanning frequency fh.
In color TV, fh is 4.5 MHz/286. Hence,

f cc

455 f h = 3.579 MHz 2

The frequency fcc serves as the frame of reference in color TV in the sense that the reference signals for the color demodulators in the receiver are obtained from a crystal-controlled oscillator of frequency fcc.



HDTV offers the following improvements:
1. 2. 3. Improved vertical resolution . Improved horizontal resolution. Less crosstalk between the components of the signal.

However, for HDTV to be widely acceptable, two requirements are . critical. First, there should be receiver compatibility, which means that the ,signal must be able to feed an HDTV and NTSC TV simultaneously and be received on the NTSC receiver with substantially the same picture quality as that achievable by conventional means. Meanwhile, the HDTV receiver realizes the full benefits, including increased resolution. Second, a bandwidth of no more than twice the 6 MHz per channel for NTSC TV broadcast should be required.


Fig. shows the baseband format of a split-luminance and split, chrominance (SLSC) type of transmission system that satisfies both of these requirements. It uses a 10-MHz baseband composite signal that can be transmitted as a vestigial sideband modulated wave in a channel bandwidth of 12 MHz. Also, an NTSC receiver (tuned to the lower 6 MHz portion of the 12 MHz spectrum) will operate with the same quality achieved in a conventional system.


Figure shows the baseband version of the amplitude response of an idealized broadcast picture transmission system, measured with respect to the picture carrier frequency.