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Short-Term Voltage Instability: Effects on Synchronous and Induction Machines

By : SUDHAKAR .C .J

Under the guidance of : Prof.T.S.PRASANNA

INTRODUCTION

Several factors point out at an increasing risk of voltage instability in the short term.
increasing proportion of general induction motor load increased use of various types of electronically controlled loads dispersed generation consuming reactive power without voltage control

Voltage instability on the short term is driven by fast recovering load components that tend to restore power consumption in the time scale of a second after a voltage drop caused by a contingency A typical such component is the induction motor

Induction generators produce active power, but similarly to motors, they consume reactive power. In new wind farm installations, the trend is to use variable speed wind generators Induction machines are usually shunt-capacitor compensated to improve their power factor. The reactive support provided by shunt capacitors varies with the square of the voltage Thus, in order to avoid induction machine instability, dynamic and fast reactive compensation, such as provided by an SVC or a STATCOM, may become necessary

Voltage instability in the cases discussed in this paper is driven by induction machine loss of equilibrium, the latter is not likely to happen unless the voltage support provided by local synchronous generators is lost or reduced. This is usually the result of rotor current limitation brought about by the over excitation limiter (OEL) of the synchronous machine Usually the OEL acts as a slow device In this case, other control mechanisms, such as load tap changers (LTCs) have time to act, and the voltage stability problem becomes a long-term one. However, even transient over excitation is not allowed above an instantaneous limit that must be enforced in the short term

OEL MODELING ASPECTS


A.Transient OEL Modeling

The modeling of OEL is detailed in and has a significant effect on voltage stability analysis The field current fed back into the OEL is given in the per unit system of the synchronous machine by the following equation:

Therefore, the OEL output signal VOEL is given by the following function:

Evolution of Synchronous generator rotor current under limitation

CASE STUDY I: INSTABILITY OF INDUCTION WIND GENERATORS IN A REALISTIC SYSTEM

The system studied here corresponds roughly to the South Evia region of the Hellenic Interconnected System The examined network consists of a local conventional steam power plant with two synchronous generators of 176.5 MVA each and 19 wind farms of total nominal capacity of 200 MW connected to the distribution network It was seen in that with proper capacitor compensation, the system is voltage stable in the long term, even for very severe contingencies

These results led to the conclusion that normal shunt capacitor banks were sufficient to maintain stability by allowing the synchronous machines a wider margin of reactive support, and no dynamic reactive compensation was deemed necessary

The system is unstable after the following double contingency. At t=10s , there is an outage of one local generator. At t=50s , there is loss of one interconnection line

Simulation results for South Evia network

CASE STUDY II: VOLTAGE INSTABILITY AFFECTING SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

A. Test System Description The test system analyzed is the 11-bus network presented in and commonly used in voltage stability studies. The one-line equivalent diagram is shown in Fig

Simulation results (a) , (b) Induction motors . (c) , (d) Static loads

(a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction motor speed.

UNDERVOLTAGE MOTOR SHEDDING


Machines terminal voltage (IM2 undervoltage shedding)

Local generator rotor current (IM2 under voltage shedding).

(a) ,(b) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (c) ,(d) Induction motor speed (IM2 undervoltage shedding).

CONCLUSION In this paper, we presented short-term voltage stability results on two test systems. In both cases, the instability was initiated after a contingency that forced a local synchronous generator to its transient over excitation limit, which was taken to be lower than is usual in practice. The driving force of the instability was identified in both cases to be the induction machines, either wind generators or equivalent motors representing industrial and residential components of load. Of particular interest in the second case was that the instability of induction motors was also affecting the local synchronous generator that was losing synchronism, thus leading to a local blackout. Finally, an induction under voltage motor shedding was proposed, in order to prevent the detected instability from leading to a local blackout.

REFERENCES

[1] C. W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability. New York: EPRI/Mc- Graw-Hill, 1994. [2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994, EPRI Power System Engineering Series. [3] B. M. Nomikos, E. G. Potamianakis, and C. D. Vournas, Oscillatory stability and limit cycle in an autonomous system with wind generation, in Proc. IEEE St. Petersburg Power Tech Conf., St. Petersburg, Russia, Jun. 2730, 2005. [4] Short-Term Voltage Instability: Effects On Synchronous and Induction Machines Emmanuel G. Potamianakis and Costas D. Vournas, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE transactions on power systems, vol. 21, no. 2, may 2006.

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