Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

Chlorobenzene from Benzene and Chlorine

Design of a Chlorobenzene Distillation Unit

Design Tasks
Process Design Material Balance Around the whole process Energy Balance around the whole process Construct Input-Output Diagram, Functional Block Flow Diagram, and Process Flow Sheet for the whole plant.

Material Balance

Revisions are made at the Reactor Section

The Onion Skin Diagram for Organization of a Chemical Process and Hierarchy of Analysis

Material Balance
Reactor Section 2 continuous stirred tank reactors Kinetics:
C6H6 + Cl2 = C6H5Cl + HCl C6H5Cl + Cl2 = C6H4Cl2 + HCl

= 1 1 = 1.00 104 1 328 = 1 2 2 = 0.15 104 1 328 = 2

Material Balance
Reactor Section Change of basis, concentration term is used rather than mole fraction Similar Approach: from component material balance, the residence time for the optimum monochlorobenzene concentration is determined. 6 =0

Material Balance
Reactor Section Residence time,
1 = 25, 819.88897 = 7.172191382 3600

Concentrations of the components can now be obtained using the residence time and the component balances Amount of Chlorine gas supplied is obtained from stoichometry

Material Balance
Reactor Section Major Revision: Some of the benzene would be retained in the HCl vapor stream that leaves the first reactor Monochlorobenzene and paraDichlorobenzene are similar compounds and are likely retained in the liquid phase compared to benzene

Material Balance
Reactor Section Peng-Robinson EOS Mixture Program was utilized to determine the VLE data of Benzene and HCl Binary Interaction Parameter, = 0.077

Concentration of Benzene and HCl in the liquid and vapor phase can be determined

Material Balance
Reactor Section Concentration and consequently the mole/mass fractions of the components of the liquid stream leaving the first reactor can be determined. In the second reactor, it is assumed that there would be negligible benzene in the HCl vapor stream since there are only small amounts of benzene in the liquid stream

Material Balance
Reactor Section HCl dissolved in the product liquid stream is specified, 1.5 % by weight HCl Concentration of the liquid product stream from the second reactor can be determined through component balances Actual amounts of the various streams in the reactor section is yet to be determined

Material Balance
Chlorobenzene Column

Design Tasks
Chemical Engineering Design Prepare a sieve-plate column design for the chlorobenzene column and make dimensioned sketches showing details of the plate layout including the weir and downcomer

Design Tasks
Mechanical Design Estimate the shell thickness, the positions and sizes of all nozzles, and method of support for the plates and column shell. Make a dimensioned sketch suitable for submission to a drawing office

Design Tasks
Process Safety and Control Indicate the safety measures required for this plant bearing in mind the toxic and inflammable materials handled. Design a process control system for the chlorobenzene distillation unit