Sie sind auf Seite 1von 51

Prokaryotes

Chapter 28

The First Cells


Microfossils are fossilized forms of microscopic life -Oldest are 3.5 billion years old

The First Cells


Stromatolites are mats of cyanobacterial cells that trap mineral deposits -Oldest are 2.7 billion years old

The First Cells


Isotopic analysis of carbon-12 in fossils suggests that carbon fixation was active as much as 3.8 BYA

Biomarkers are organic molecules of biological origin -Lipids were found in ancient rocks -This indicates that cyanobacteria are at least 2.7 billion years old
4

Prokaryotic Diversity
Prokaryotes are the oldest, and structurally simplest forms of life Prokaryotes are ubiquitous Less than 10% of species are known Bacteria (also called eubacteria) Archaea (formerly called archaebacteria) -Many archaeans are extremophiles
5

Prokaryotic Features
Unicellularity -Most are single-celled -Some can form complex biofilms Cell size -Most are less than 1 mm in diameter Chromosome -Single circular double-stranded DNA -Found in the nucleoid
6

Prokaryotic Features
Internal compartmentalization -No membrane-bounded organelles Flagella -Simple in structure; spin like propellers Cell division -Most divide by binary fission Genetic recombination -Occurs through horizontal gene transfer
7

Prokaryotic Features
Metabolic diversity -Two types of photosynthesis -Oxygenic = Produces oxygen -Anoxygenic = Nonoxygen producing - E.g: Sulfur and sulfate -Chemolithotrophic prokaryotes derive energy from inorganic molecules
9

Bacteria vs. Archaea


Plasma membrane -Bacterial lipids are unbranched -Connected to glycerol by ester linkages -Archaeal lipids are branched -Connected to glycerol by ether linkages -Tetraethers form a monolayer

10

Bacteria vs. Archaea

11

Bacteria vs. Archaea


Cell wall -Bacteria have peptidoglycan -Archaea lack peptidoglycan DNA replication -Archaeal DNA replication is more similar to that of eukaryotes Gene Expression -Archaeal transcription and translation are more similar to those of eukaryotes
12

Early Classification Characteristics


1. Photosynthetic or nonphotosynthetic 2. Motile or nonmotile 3. Unicellular or filamentous 4. Formation of spores or division by transverse binary fission 5. Importance as human pathogens or not

13

Molecular Classification
1. Amino acid sequences of key proteins 2. Percent guanine-cytosine content 3. Nucleic acid hybridization 4. Ribosomal RNA sequencing 5. Whole-genome sequencing

14

Molecular Classification
Based on these molecular data, several prokaryotic groupings have been proposed -Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology -Contains about 7,000 bacterial and archaeal species The three-domain (Woese) system of phylogeny is based on rRNA sequences

15

Molecular Classification

16

Prokaryotic Shapes
Most prokaryotes have one of 3 basic shapes -Bacillus = Rod-shaped -Coccus = Spherical -Spirillum = Helical-shaped

17

The Bacterial Cell Wall


Maintains shape and protects the cell from swelling and rupturing Consists of peptidoglycan -Polysaccharides cross-linked with peptides Archaea do not possess peptidoglycan -Some have pseudopeptidoglycan Cell wall is the basis of the Gram stain
18

The Bacterial Cell Wall

19

The Bacterial Cell Wall


Two main types -Gram-positive bacteria -Thick peptidoglycan -Teichoic and lipoteichoic acids -Gram-negative bacteria -Thin peptidoglycan -Have an outer membrane -Contains lipopolysaccharide
20

The Bacterial Cell Wall

21

External Layers
S-layer -A rigid paracrystalline layer found in some bacteria and archaea -Aids in attachment Capsule -A gelatinous layer found in some bacteria -Aids in attachment -Protects from the immune system
22

Bacterial Appendages
Pili -Short, hairlike structures -Found in Gram-negative bacteria -Aid in attachment and conjugation Flagella -Long, helical structures -Composed of the protein flagellin -Involved in locomotion
23

Bacterial Appendages

24

Internal Structure
Nucleoid region -Contains the single, circular chromosome -May also contain plasmids Ribosomes -Smaller than those of eukaryotes and differ in protein and RNA content -Targeted by antibacterial antibiotics
25

Internal Structure
Internal membranes -Invaginated cell membrane -For respiration or photosynthesis Endospores -Highly-resistant structures -Released upon cell lysis -Can germinate back to normal cell

26

Prokaryotic Genetics
Prokaryotes do not reproduce sexually However, they undergo horizontal gene transfer, which is of three types -Conjugation = Cell-to-cell contact -Transduction = By bacteriophages -Transformation = From the environment
27

Conjugation
In E. coli, conjugation is based on the presence of the F plasmid F+ cells contain the plasmid F cells do not

The F+ cell produce an F pilus that connects it to an F cell


28

Conjugation
Transfer of the F plasmid occurs through the conjugation bridge The end result is two F+ cells

29

Conjugation
The F plasmid can integrate into the bacterial chromosome -Hfr cell (high frequency of recombination) The F plasmid can also excise itself by reversing the integration process
30

Conjugation

31

Conjugation
An inaccurate excision may occur -F cell

Conjugation can occur between an F and an F cell -The result is a partial diploid, or merodiploid
32

Transduction
Generalized transduction -Occurs via accidents in the lytic cycle -Viruses package bacterial DNA and transfer it in a subsequent infection -Virtually any gene can be transferred Specialized transduction -Occurs via accidents in the lysogenic cycle -Imprecise excision of prophage DNA 33 -Only a few genes can be transferred

Transduction

34

Transformation
Natural transformation -Occurs in many bacterial species, including Streptococcus which was studied by Griffith -DNA that is released from a dead cell is picked up by another live cell Artificial transformation -Accomplished in the lab -Used to transform E. coli for molecular cloning 35

Transformation

36

Conjugative Plasmids
Conjugative plasmids may pick up additional genes -R (resistance) plasmids -Encode antibiotic resistance genes -Staphylococcus aureus -Virulence plasmids -Encode genes for pathogenic traits -Enterobacteriaceae -E. coli O157:H7 strain
37

Mutation
Mutations can arise spontaneously in bacteria -Also caused by radiation and chemicals Mutations (and plasmids) can spread rapidly in a population -Negative consequences for humans -For example: -Methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) -Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) 38

Prokaryotic Metabolism
Acquisition of Carbon -Autotrophs = From inorganic CO2 -Heterotrophs = From organic molecules Acquisition of Energy -Chemolithotrophs = From inorganic chemicals -Phototrophs = From sunlight
39

Prokaryotic Metabolism
Photoautotrophs -Cyanobacteria Chemolithoautotrophs -Nitrifiers Photoheterotrophs -Purple and green nonsulfur bacteria Chemoheterotrophs -Majority of prokaryotes -Use organic molecules for C and energy

40

Prokaryotic Metabolism
Type III secretion system -Found in many Gram-negative bacteria -Used to transfer virulence proteins directly into host cells -Yersinia pestis Bubonic plague -Pseudomonads Plant pathogens -Blights, soft rot, wilts
41

Human Bacterial Disease


In the early 20th century, infectious diseases killed 20% of children before the age of five -Sanitation and antibiotics considerably improved the situation In recent years, however, many bacterial diseases have appeared and reappeared
42

Human Bacterial Disease


Tuberculosis -Mycobacterium tuberculosis -A scourge for thousands of years -Afflicts the respiratory system -Mutidrug-resistant (MDR) strains are very alarming

43

Human Bacterial Disease


Dental caries (tooth decay) -Plaque consists of bacterial biofilms -Streptococcus ferments sugar to lactic acid -Tooth enamel degenerates Peptic ulcers -Helicobacter pylori is the main cause -Treated with antibiotics
44

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)


Gonorrhea -Neisseria gonorrhoeae -Can pass from mom to baby via birth canal -Can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Chlamydia -Chlamydia trachomatis -Silent STD -Can cause PID and heart disease
45

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)


Syphilis -Treponema pallidum -Can pass from mom to baby via birth canal -Four distinct stages -Primary - Chancre -Secondary - Rash -Tertiary - Latency -Quaternary - Heart and nerve damage
46

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

47

Beneficial Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are crucial to chemical cycles -Decomposers release a dead organisms atoms to the environment -Photosynthesizers fix carbon into sugars -Nitrogen fixers reduce N2 to NH3 (ammonia)
48

Beneficial Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes may live in symbiotic relationships with eukaryotes -Mutualism = Both parties benefit -Nitrogen-fixing bacteria on plant roots -Cellulase-producing bacteria in animals -Commensalism = One organism benefits and the other is unaffected -Parasitism = One organism benefits and the other is harmed 49

Beneficial Prokaryotes
Bacteria are used in genetic engineering - Biofactories that produce various chemicals, including insulin and antibiotics Bacteria are used for bioremediation -Remove pollutants from water, air and soil -Exxon Valdez oil spill
50

Beneficial Prokaryotes

51