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TIG Welding

TIG Welding
TIG welding is a commonly used high quality welding process. TIG welding has become a popular choice of welding processes when high quality, precision welding is required.

In TIG welding an arc is formed between a non consumable tungsten electrode and the metal being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to shield the electrode and molten weld pool.
If filler wire is used, it is added to the weld pool separately.

TIG Melding
TIG Welding Benefits

Superior quality welds Welds can be made with or without filler metal Precise control of welding variables (heat) Free of spatter Low distortion

Shielding Gases Argon Argon + Hydrogen Argon/Helium

TIG Melding
The TIG welding process uses an arc struck between the tungsten electrode and the metal to be welded. The arc heats and melts the metal, a filler rod being added as required. The electrode does not melt as welding takes place, and an inert shielding gas (argon) flows out around the tungsten and the weld preventing oxidisation
welding because it produces accurate results of the highest quality across a wide range of metals, including stainless steel, aluminium, copper and a range of alloys.

MIG Welding

MIG Welding
MIG welding is a commonly used high deposition rate welding process. Wire is continuously fed from a spool. MIG welding is therefore referred to as a semiautomatic welding process.

MIG Welding Shielding Gas Argon Argon - 1 to 5% Oxygen Argon - 3 to 25% CO2 Argon/Helium

MIG welding
MIG Welding Benefits All position capability Higher deposition rates. Less operator skill required Long welds can be made without starts and stops Minimal post weld cleaning is required

Mig welding problem


Heavily oxidized weld deposit Irregular wire feed Porosity Unstable arc Difficult arc starting

Gas metal arc welding / stick welding


The flux covering the electrode melts during welding. This forms the gas and slag to shield the arc and molten weld pool. The slag must be chipped off the weld bead after welding. The flux also provides a method of adding scavengers, deoxidizers, and alloying elements to the weld metal
Benefits Equipment used is simple, inexpensive, and portable Electrode provides and regulates its own flux Lower sensitivity to wind and drafts than gas shielded welding processes All position capability

GMAW
Stick Welding Problems Arc Blow Arc Stability Excessive spatter Incorrect weld profile Rough surface Porosity

Principle of Electricity
Principles of Electricity - Arc welding is a method of joining metals accomplished by applying sufficient electrical pressure to an electrode to maintain a current path (arc) between the electrode and the work piece. In this process, electrical energy is changed into heat energy, bringing the metals to a molten state; whereby they are joined. The electrode (conductor) is either melted and added to the base metal or remains in its solid state. One of these particles is the electron, which has the ability to move from one place to another. The electron is classified as a negative electrical charge. Another particle, about 1800 times as heavy as the electron, is the proton and under normal conditions the proton will remain stationary.

Material is said to be in an electrically uncharged state when its atoms contain an equal number of positive charges (protons) and negative charges (electrons). This balance is upset when pressure forces the electrons to move from atom to atom. This pressure, sometimes referred to as electromotive force, is commonly known as voltage. It should be noted that voltage that does not move through a conductor, but without voltage, there would be no current flow The transfer of electrons from a negative to a positive charge throughout the length of a conductor constitutes an electrical current. The rate that current flows through a conductor is measured in amperes

Submerged Arc Welding


Submerged Arc Welding is process by which metals are joined by an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work. Shielding is supplied by a granular, fusible material usually brought to the work from a flux hopper. Filler metal comes from the electrode and sometimes from a second filler rod. Flux: Fluxes used in SAW are granular fusible minerals containing oxides of manganese, silicon, titanium, aluminum, calcium, zirconium, magnesium and other compounds such as calcium fluoride. The flux is specially formulated to be compatible with a given electrode wire type so that the combination of flux

Submerged arc welding

Thermit welding
Thermit welding is basically a process in which a mixture containing Aluminium powder, Iron Oxide and suitable alloying elements.
Mixture is ignited in a crucible to form molten steel and slag. This molten steel is then directed into the pre-fabricated moulds where it fuses with the preheated rail ends to form a Thermit welded joint. This process is based on the exothermic reaction. Thermit mixture contains the following items Aluminium powder, Steel chips and Various ferro alloys Thermit Powder". The thermit powder ignites at a temperature of about 300 deg C. On ignition, the reaction starts and the mixture melts. The temperature of the molten metal rises to about 2700 degc

Thermit welding

Thermo chemical reaction


Fe2O3 + 2 Al 2 Fe + Al2O3
Iron oxide+ al
+

(3090 DEG.C )

iron +al oxide

Complete process

Thermit welding

applications
Rail road joining Long crank shaft Propeller shaft

Gas Welding
The Heat derives from the combustion of a fuel gas such as acetylene in combination with oxygen.
It is a fusion welding process wherein the joint is completely melted to obtain the fusion. The heat produced by the combustion of gas is sufficient to melt any metal and as such is universally applicable. In all the oxy-fuel gas welding processes, the combustion takes place in two stages. The first reaction takes place when the fuel gas such as acetylene and oxygen mixture burn releasing intense heat. C2H2+ O22CO + H2+ 18.75 MJ/m3

Gas welding
The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen produced in the first stage further combine with the atmospheric oxygen and give rise to the outer bluish flame, with the following reaction. 4 CO + 2H2+ 3O24CO2+ 2H2O + 35.77 MJ/m3

Neutral flame (O2/C2H2=1)


Carburising flame (O2/C2H2<1=0.85)

Oxidising flame (O2/C2H2>1=1.15)

Oxy Actylene Gas welding

Oxy Acetylene gas welding

The oxygen is normally stored in strong cylinders at a pressure ranging from 13.8 MPa to 18.2 MPa.
Also the source of heat is separate from the filler rod and hence, the filler metal can be properly controlled and heat properly adjusted giving rise to a satisfactory weld.

It is versatile. Also the source of heat is separate from the filler rod and hence, the filler metal can be properly controlled and heat properly adjusted giving rise to a satisfactory weld.

Welding