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CHAPTER 5
Read Chapter 5 Study examples and exercises.

Chapter 5 Outline
Electrolytes NIEs 5 General Chemical Reactions Redox Acid/Bases Molarity Titration

IONIC COMPOUNDS
Compounds in Aqueous Solution
Many reactions involve ionic compounds, especially reactions in water aqueous solutions.

KMnO4 in water

K+(aq) + MnO4-(aq)

Aqueous Solutions
How do we know ions are present in aqueous solutions? The solutions conduct electricity! They are called ELECTROLYTES HCl, K2CrO4, MgCl2, and NaCl are

strong

electrolytes. They dissociate completely


(or nearly so) into ions. K2CrO4(aq) ---> 2 K+(aq) + CrO42-(aq)

ClNa+
Negative O atom

Positive H atom

NaCl dissolving in water

Aqueous Solutions
How do we know ions are present in aqueous solutions? The solutions conduct electricity! They are called ELECTROLYTES HCl, MgCl2, and NaCl are strong

electrolytes. They dissociate completely


(or nearly so) into ions.

Figure 5.2 Strong Electrolyte

Aqueous Solutions
Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent, so it is a

weak electrolyte.
HC2H3O2(aq) C2H3O2-(aq) + H+(aq)

Figure 5.3

Weak Electrolyte

Acetic acid Weak Electrolyte


Ionized acetic acid

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H+

Aqueous Solutions
Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent, so it is a

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weak electrolyte.
CH3CO2H(aq)

-CH3CO2-(aq)

+ H+(aq)

Some compounds dissolve in water but do not conduct electricity. They are called nonelectrolytes. Examples include: sugar ethanol ethylene glycol (in antifreeze)

Aqueous Solutions

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Figure 5.3 b
Nonelectrolyte

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Nonelectrolyte Ethanol, C2H5OH

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WATER SOLUBILITY OF IONIC COMPOUNDS


Not all ionic compounds dissolve in water.
Some are INSOLUBLE. See Figure 5.4

As long as one ion from the list is present in a compound, the compound is water soluble.

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See your Solubility Table

WATER SOLUBILITY OF IONIC COMPOUNDS


Common minerals are often formed with anions that lead to insolubility: sulfide fluoride carbonate oxide

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Iron pyrite, a sulfide Azurite, a copper carbonate

Orpiment, arsenic sulfide

ACIDS
An acid H+ in water

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Some strong acids are HCl hydrochloric HNO3 nitric HClO4 perchloric H2SO4 sulfuric

HNO3

ACIDS
An acid
HCl(aq)

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H+ in water
H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

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The Nature of Acids


HCl

ClH3O+

H2O

hydronium ion

Weak Acids
WEAK ACIDS HC2H3O2 H2CO3 H3PO4

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WEAK ELECTROLYTES acetic acid carbonic acid phosphoric acid

ACIDS
Nonmetal oxides can be acids
CO2(aq) + H2O(l)
SO3(aq) + H2O(l)

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H2CO3(aq)
H2SO4(aq)

and can come from burning coal and oil.

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BASES
Base
NaOH(aq)

OH- in water
Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

NaOH is a strong base.

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Ammonia, NH3 An Important Base


NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

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Figure 5.11

Ammonia is a weak base

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BASES
Metal oxides are bases
CaO(s)+ H2O(l)

Ca(OH)2(aq)

CaO in water. Indicator shows solution is basic.

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Net Ionic Equations


Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq)
We really should write Mg(s) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq) H2(g) + Mg2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)

Ionic Equations
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)

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Mg(s) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

H2(g) + Mg2+(aq) +
2 Cl-(aq)

The two Cl- ions are SPECTATOR IONS they do not participate.

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Net Ionic Equations


We leave the spectator ions out in writing the

NET IONIC EQUATION (NIE)


Mg(s) + 2 H+(aq)
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) Mg(s) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

H2(g) + Mg2+(aq)
H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) H2(g) + Mg2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN WATER


We will look at

EXCHANGE REACTIONS
AX + B Y AY + B X

The anions exchange places between cations.


Pb(NO3) 2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) ----> PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3 (aq)

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Precipitation Reactions
The driving force is the formation of an insoluble compound a precipitate. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) 2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

Net ionic equation


Pb2+(aq) + 2 I-(aq) PbI2(s)

Acid-Base Reactions
The driving force is the formation of water.

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NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)

NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Net ionic equation OH-(aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l)

This applies to ALL reactions of STRONG acids and bases.

Acid-Base Reactions
A-B reactions are sometimes called NEUTRALIZATIONS because the solution is neither acidic nor basic at the end. The other product of the A-B reaction is a SALT, MX.
HX + MOH ---> MX + H2O

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Mn+ comes from the base & Xn- comes from the acid.
This is one way to make compounds!

Gas-Forming Reactions

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Gas-Forming Reactions
CaCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) CaSO4(s) + H2CO3(aq)

Carbonic acid is unstable and forms CO2 & H2O


H2CO3(aq) CO2 (g) + water

(Antacid tablet has citric acid + NaHCO3)

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al(s) 2 Fe(s) + Al2O3(s)

Thermite reaction

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EXCHANGE: Precipitation Reactions

EXCHANGE Gas-Forming Reactions

REACTIONS

EXCHANGE Acid-Base Reactions

REDOX REACTIONS

REDOX REACTIONS
Oxidation ( H, Mg, and Al )
2 H2(g) + O2(g) Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) 2 H2O(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

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All corrosion reactions are oxidations.

2 Al(s) + 3 Cu2+(aq)

2 Al3+(aq) + 3 Cu(s)

Reduction ( Fe+3 )
Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al(s) 2 Fe(s) + Al2O3(s)

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REDOX REACTIONS

But notice that in all reactions if something has been oxidized then something has also been reduced.

Cu(s) + 2 Ag+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s)

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Why Study Redox Reactions


Batteries Corrosion

Manufacturing metals Fuels

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REDOX REACTIONS
Redox reactions are characterized by ELECTRON TRANSFER between an electron donor and electron acceptor. Transfer leads to 1. Increase in oxidation number of some element = OXIDATION 2. Decrease in oxidation number of some element = REDUCTION

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OXIDATION NUMBERS
The electric charge an element APPEARS to have when electrons are counted by some arbitrary rules:

1. Each atom in free element has ox. no. = 0 Zn O2 I2 S8 2. In simple ions, ox. no. = charge on ion
-1 for Cl+2 for Mg2+

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OXIDATION NUMBERS
3. O has ox. no. = -2 (except in peroxides: in H2O2, O = -1) 4. Ox. no. of H = +1 (except when H is associated with a metal as in NaH where it is -1) 5. Algebraic sum of oxidation numbers = 0 for a compound = overall charge for an ion

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OXIDATION NUMBERS
NH3 N =

ClOH3PO4 MnO4-

Cl =
P = Mn =

Oxidation number of F in HF?

Cr2O72C3H8

Cr =
C =

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Recognizing a Redox Reaction


Corrosion of aluminum

2 Al(s) + 3 Cu2+(aq) ---> 2 Al3+(aq) + 3 Cu(s)


Al(s) --> Al3+(aq) + 3 e Ox. no. of Al increases as e- are donated by the metal. Therefore, Al is OXIDIZED and is the REDUCING AGENT in this balanced half-reaction.

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Recognizing a Redox Reaction


Corrosion of aluminum

2Al(s)+ 3Cu2+(aq)--> 2Al3+(aq)+ 3Cu(s)


Cu2+(aq) + 2 e- --> Cu(s) Ox. no. of Cu decreases as e- are accepted by the ion. Therefore, Cu is REDUCED and is the OXIDIZING AGENT in this balanced halfreaction.

Recognizing a Redox Reaction

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Notice that the 2 half-reactions add up to give the overall reaction if we use 2 mol of Al and 3 mol of Cu2+.
2 Al(s) --> 2 Al3+(aq) + 6 e3 Cu2+(aq) + 6 e- --> 3 Cu(s)

----------------------------------------------------------2 Al(s) + 3 Cu2+(aq) ---> 2 Al3+(aq) + 3 Cu(s)

Final equation is balanced for mass and charge.

Examples of Redox Reactions Metal + acid Mg + HCl Mg = reducing agent H+ = oxidizing agent

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Metal + acid Cu + HNO3 Cu = reducing agent HNO3 = oxidizing agent

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Examples of Redox Reactions

Metal + Halogen 2 Al + 3 Br2 ---> Al2Br6

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Recognizing a Redox Reaction


See Table 5.5

Reaction Type
In terms of oxygen In terms Ox. No. In terms of electrons

Oxidation
gain increase loss

Reduction
loss decrease gain

Common Oxidizing and Reducing Agents


See Table 5.4
Metals (Cu) are reducing agents HNO3 is an oxidizing agent Cu + 4 HNO3 --> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 NO2 + 2 H2O

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Metals (Na, K, Mg, Fe) are reducing agents 2 K + 2 H2O --> 2 KOH + H2

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Learn to recognize common oxidizing and reducing agents.

See Table 5.4.

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Table 5-4

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BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS Section 21.1 The Half-Reaction Method


Separate the equation into half-reactions.

Balance the half-reactions.


Combine the half-reactions to form a balanced equation containing no electrons.

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Balancing Half-Reactions
First balance the element changing oxidation state. Balance the oxygen atoms with water. Balance the hydrogen atoms with H+. Balance the charge with electrons.

After combining the half-reactions, check for mass and charge balance.

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Practice Problems
Balance the following equations:

MnO4- + H2SO3 ----> Mn+2 + SO4-2

Al + NO3- ---> Al(OH)4- + NH3

REACTIONS IN SOLUTION
Section 5.8

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Terminology
In solution we need to define the SOLVENT the component whose physical state is preserved when solution forms SOLUTE the other solution component

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Concentration of Solute
The amount of solute in a solution is given by its concentration.

moles solute Molarity (M) = liters of solution

PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl26 H2O in enough water to make 250.0 mL of solution. Calculate molarity.

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PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl26 H2O in enough water to make 250.0 mL of solution. Calculate molarity.

5.00 g mole = 0.0841 mole/L 0.2500 L 237.7 g = 0.0841 M

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The Nature of the KMnO4 Solution

KMnO4(aq) --> K+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) If you make a solution that is 0.30 M in KMnO4, this means that _ [K+] = [MnO4-] = 0.30 M

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The Nature of a Na2CO3 Solution


This water-soluble compound is ionic Na2CO3(aq) --> 2 Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq) If [Na2CO3] = 0.100 M, then [Na+] = 0.200 M [CO32-] = 0.100 M

Na2CO3

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USING MOLARITY
What mass of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is required to make 250. mL of a 0.0500 M solution?
Conc (M) = moles/volume = mol/V

This means that

moles = M V

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Preparing Solutions From Solids


What mass of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is required to make 250. mL of a 0.0500 M solution?
0.250 L 0.0500 mole 90.0 g L mole = 1.12 g

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Preparing Solutions
Weigh out a solid solute and dissolve in a given quantity of solvent. Dilute a concentrated solution to give one that is less concentrated.

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Preparing Solutions by Dilution


Preparing a 1.64 10-4M or 1.64 10-4mol/L

solution.

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PROBLEM: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you want 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do?

H2 O

But how much water do we add?

3.0 M NaOH Concentrated

0.50 M NaOH Dilute

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PROBLEM: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you want 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do?
How much water is added? The important point is that

moles of NaOH in ORIGINAL solution = moles of NaOH in FINAL solution

PROBLEM: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you want 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do?
Moles of NaOH in original solution =

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MV

(3.0 mol/L)(0.050 L) = 0.15 mol NaOH Therefore, moles of NaOH in final solution must also = 0.15 mol NaOH (0.15 mol NaOH)(1 L/0.50 mol) = 0.30 L

or 300

mL = volume of final solution.

PROBLEM: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you want 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do?
Conclusion:
H2 O

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add enough water to 50.0

3.0 M NaOH Concentrated

0.50 M NaOH Dilute

mL of 3.0 M NaOH to make 300 mL of 0.50 M NaOH.

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Preparing Solutions by Dilution


A shortcut

Minitial Vinitial = Mfinal Vfinal

SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY
Section 5.9
Zinc reacts with acids to produce H2 gas. If you have 10.0 g of Zn, what volume of 2.50 M HCl is needed to convert the Zn completely?

Zinc reacts with acids to produce H2 gas. If you have 10.0 g of Zn, what volume of 2.50 M HCl is needed to convert the Zn completely?
Step 1: Write the balanced equation

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Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) --> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Zinc reacts with acids to produce H2 gas. If you have 10.0 g of Zn, what volume of 2.50 M HCl is needed to convert the Zn completely?

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Step 2: Write the given and requested information below the equation.

Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) --> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) 10.0 g 2.50 M ?mL

Zinc reacts with acids to produce H2 gas. If you have 10.0 g of Zn, what volume of 2.50 M HCl is needed to convert the Zn completely?
Step 3: Calculate using the information.

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Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) --> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) 10.0 g 2.50 M ?mL 10.0 gZn moleZn 65.4 gZn 2 moleHCl moleZn L HCl 2.50 moleHCl

= 0.122 L HCl

ACID-BASE REACTIONS Titrations


H2C2O4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) --->Na2C2O4(aq) + 2 H2O(liq)

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acid

base

Carry out this reaction using a TITRATION.

Oxalic acid,

H2C2O4

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Titration setup

Buret contains a solution whose concentration is known exactly.

Solution of unknown concentration

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Titration

1. Add solution from the buret. 2. Reagent (base) reacts with compound (acid) in solution in the flask. 3. Indicator shows when exact stoichiometric reaction has occurred. 4. At equivalence point moles H+ = moles OH-

LAB PROBLEM #1: Standardize a solution of NaOH i.e., accurately determine its concentration.
1.065 g of H2C2O4 (oxalic acid)
requires 35.62 mL of NaOH for titration to an equivalence point.

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What is the concentration of the NaOH?

1.065 g of H2C2O4 (oxalic acid) requires 35.62 mL of NaOH for titration to an equivalence point. What is the concentration of the NaOH? Step 1: Write the balanced equation

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2 NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) --> Na2C2O4(aq) + 2 HOH(l)

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1.065 g of H2C2O4 (oxalic acid) requires 35.62 mL of NaOH for titration to an equivalence point. What is the concentration of the NaOH?
Step 2: Write the given and requested information below the equation. 2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) --> Na2C2O4(aq) +2 HOH(l) 35.62 mL 1.065 g ?M

1.065 g of H2C2O4 (oxalic acid) requires 35.62 mL of NaOH for titration to an equivalence point. What is the concentration of the NaOH?
Step 3: Calculate using the information. 2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) --> Na2C2O4(aq) +2 HOH(l) 35.62 mL 1.065 g ?M

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1.065g A

mole A

2 mole B mole A

0.03562 L B 90.0 g A

= 0.664 mole B/L B

= 0.664 M NaOH

LAB PROBLEM #2: Use standardized NaOH to determine the amount of an acid in an unknown.
Apples contain malic acid, C4H6O5. C4H6O5(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) --->

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Na2C4H4O5(aq) + 2 H2O(liq)
76.80 g of apple requires 34.56 mL of 0.663 M NaOH for titration.

What is mass % of malic acid?

76.80 g of apple requires 34.56 mL of 0.663 M NaOH for titration. What is weight % of malic acid?
Step 1: Write the balanced equation
C4H6O5(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) ---> Na2C4H4O5(aq) + 2 H2O(l)

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76.80 g of apple requires 34.56 mL of 0.663 M NaOH for titration. What is weight % of malic acid?
Step 2: Write the given and requested information below the equation. C4H6O5(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) ---> Na2C4H4O5(aq) + 2 H2O(l) ?g 34.56 mL (? % A) 0.663 M

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76.80 g of apple requires 34.56 mL of 0.663 M NaOH for titration. What is weight % of malic acid?
Step 3: Calculate using the information.
C4H6O5(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) ---> Na2C4H4O5(aq) + 2 H2O(l) ?g 34.56 mL (? % A) 0.663 M

.03456 L B .663 mole B LB %A=

mole A 134.0 g A = 1.54 g A 2 mole B mole A

1.54 g A 76.80 g apple x 100 = 2.00 % A

Sample Problems

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1) What volume of 0.50 M sulfuric acid is needed to react completely with 10.0 mL of 2.0 M potassium hydroxide? H2SO4 + 2 KOH --> 2 HOH + K2SO4 0.50 M 2.0 M ? mL 10.0 mL .0100 L KOH 2.0 mole KOH mole H2SO4 L H2SO4 L KOH 2 mole KOH .50 mole H2SO4 = 0.020 L H2SO4

Sample Problems
2) 16 mL of 2.0 M NaOH neutralizes 25 mL of HCl. What is the molarity of the acid?

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HCl + NaOH --> HOH + NaCl


?M 25 mL 2.0 M 16 mL mole HCl mole NaOH 1.3 M HCl

0.016 L NaOH 2.0 mole NaOH 0.025 L HCl L NaOH =

Sample Problems

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3) A 0.15 M solution of calcium chloride is added to a solution of ammonium carbonate and 2.010 g of calcium carbonate is precipitated. What volume of calcium chloride solution was added? CaCl2 + (NH4)2CO3 --> CaCO3 + 2 NH4Cl 0.15 M ? mL 2.010 g CaCO3 mole CaCO3 mole CaCl2 L CaCl2 2.010 g

100.1 gCaCO3 moleCaCO3 .15 moleCaCl2


= 0. 13 L CaCl2

Sample Problems

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4) What volume(mL) of 0.100 M HCl is needed to react completely with 15.7 g of barium hydroxide? 2 HCl + Ba(OH)2 --> 2 HOH + BaCl2 0.100 M ? mL 15.7 g Ba(OH)2 mole Ba(OH)2 2 mole HCl L HCl 15.7 g

171.3 g Ba(OH)2 moleBa(OH)2 .100moleHCl = 1.83 L HCl = 1830 mL HCl

Practice Problems

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Write the balanced formula, ionic, and net ionic equations for: Mixture of solutions of barium chloride and sodium phosphate. Mixtures of solutions of silver nitrate and sodium carbonate. Mixtures of solutions of nitric acid and barium hydroxide. Mixtures of solutions of ammonia and acetic acid. Silver carbonate solid reacts with nitric acid

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Practice Problems
1. Write the NIE for each of the following: lead(II) nitrate + potassium iodide perchloric acid + potassium hydroxide sodium sulfite + hydroiodic acid 2. Identify the substance being reduced, the substance being oxidized, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent: 4 Fe + 3 O2 --> 2 Fe2O3

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Practice Problems
3. a) Balance the following equation in acidic solution. KMnO4 + NaCl --> Cl2 + MnCl2 b) Balance the following equation in basic solution. I2 + NO3- -----> IO2- + N2O 4. Calculate the molarity (M) of 32.7 g H3PO4 in 250 mL of solution. 5. Explain how to prepare 500. mL of 0.10 M (NH4)2CO3 6. Explain how to prepare 75 mL of 0.025 M NaOH from 4.0 M NaOH.

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Practice Problems
7. How many grams of solute is there in 75.0 mL of 0.25 M FeCl3? 8. Explain how to prepare 75.0 mL of 0.105 M ammonium phosphate. 9. 50.0 mL of a HCl solution is required to react completely with 1.204 g of CaCO3. What is the M? 10. How many grams of BaSO4 can be formed from a barium nitrate solution by adding 42.6 mL of 0.15 M sulfuric acid? 11. How many moles of sulfur dioxide are produced when 25.0 mL of 0.15 M ammonium sulfite reacts with 25.0 mL of 0.25 M chloric acid?

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Practice Problems Answers


1. Pb2+ (aq) + 2 I1- (aq) --> PbI2 (s) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) --> HOH (l) SO32- (aq) + 2 H+ (aq) --> SO2 (g) + H2O (l) 2. Reduced, OA = oxygen Oxidized, RA = iron 3. a) 16 H+ (aq) + 2 MnO4- (aq) + 10 Cl- (aq) --> 2 Mn2+ (aq) + 8 H2O (l) + 5 Cl2 (g) b) 2 OH- (aq) + 4 I2 (aq) + 6 NO3- (aq) --> 8 IO2- (aq) + 3 N2O (g) + H2O (l) 4. 1.3 M

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Practice Problems Answers


5. Dissolve 4.8 g ammonium carbonate in some water, then dilute to a total volume of 500. mL. 6. Take 0.47 mL of 4.0 M NaOH and dilute to a total volume of 75 mL. 7. 3.0 g 8. Dissolve 1.17 g ammonium phosphate in some water, then dilute to a total volume of 75.0 mL. 9. 0.481 M 10. 1.5 g 11. .0031 mole
End of Chapter 5

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 1. ferric nitrate + sodium sulfide

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Fe(NO3)3 + Na2S --> Fe2S3


2 Fe(NO3)3 + 3 Na2S --> Fe2S3 2 Fe3+ + 6 NO3- + 6 Na+ +

+
+ 3 S2-

NaNO3
6 NaNO3 --> 6 NO3-

Fe2S3 + 6 Na+ + 2 Fe3+ + 3 S2-->

Fe2S3

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 2. barium hydroxide + acetic acid

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Ba(OH)2 + HC2H3O2 --> Ba(C2H3O2)2 + HOH


Ba(OH)2 + 2 HC2H3O2 --> Ba(C2H3O2)2 + 2 HOH Ba2+ + 2 OH+ 2 HC2H3O2 --> 2 HOH

Ba2+ + 2 C2H3O2- + 2 OH- + 2 HC2H3O2 OH+ HC2H3O2

--> 2 HOH + 2 C2H3O2--> HOH + C2H3O2-

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 3. hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate

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HCl
2 H+

+ CaCO3
+ 2 Cl+

-->
-->

CaCl2 + H2CO3
CaCl2 + H2CO3 -->

2 HCl + CaCO3

CaCO3

Ca2+ + 2 Cl- + CO2 + HOH 2 H+ + CaCO3 --> Ca2+ + CO2 + HOH

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 4. sodium nitrate + potassium chloride

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NaNO3
Na+

+ KCl
+ NO3Na+ +

--> NaCl
K+ +

+
Cl+

KNO3
--> NO3-

+ Cl-

+ K+

All spectators, no reaction

(N/R)

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 5. sodium sulfite + sulfuric acid

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Na2SO3

+ H2SO4 --> Na2SO4 +


+ H+ + SO2

H2SO3

2 Na+ + SO322 Na+

HSO4- --> + H2O

+ SO42- +

SO32- + H+ + HSO4- --> SO42- + SO2 + H2O

Sample Problems
Write the NIE 6. barium + sodium chloride

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Ba Ba

+ NaCl --> BaCl2 + 2 NaCl --> BaCl2


Ba + 2 Na+ +

+ +
2 Cl+

Na 2 Na
--> 2 Na

Ba2+ + 2 ClBa + 2 Na+ -->

Ba2+ + 2 Na

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Practice Problems
Balance the following equation: MnO4- + H2SO3 ----> Mn+2 + SO4-2 1. Separate into half reactions: MnO4- ----> Mn+2 H2SO3 ----> SO4-2 2. Balance atoms: 8 H+ + MnO4- ----> Mn+2 + 4 H2O H2O + H2SO3 ----> SO4-2 + 4 H+

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Practice Problems
3. Balance charges: 5 e- + 8 H+ + MnO4- ----> Mn+2 + 4 H2O H2O + H2SO3 ----> SO4-2 + 4 H+ + 2 e4. Equal electrons gained and lost: 2(5 e- + 8 H+ + MnO4- ----> Mn+2 + 4 H2O) 5(H2O + H2SO3 ----> SO4-2 + 4 H+ + 2 e-)
5 5 5 20 10
10 16 2 2 8

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Practice Problems
5. Simplify and Add: 2(5 e- + 8 H+ + MnO4- ----> Mn+2 + 4 H2O)
10 5 16 5 2 2 8 3

5(H2O + H2SO3 ----> SO4-2 + 4 H+ + 2 e-)


2MnO4- + 5 H2SO3 ----> 2 Mn+2 + 5 SO4-2 + 4 H+ + 3 H2O

20 4

10

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Practice Problems
Balance the following equation: Al + NO3- ---> Al(OH)4- + NH3 1. Separate into half reactions: Al ----> Al(OH)4NO3- ----> NH3 2. Balance atoms: 4 H2O + Al ----> Al(OH)4- + 4 H+ 9 H+ + NO3- ----> NH3 + 3 H2O

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Practice Problems
3. Balance charges: 4 H2O + Al ----> Al(OH)4- + 4 H+ + 3 e8 e- + 9 H+ + NO3- ----> NH3 + 3 H2O 4. Equal electrons gained and lost: 8(4 H2O + Al ----> Al(OH)4- + 4 H+ + 3 e-) 3(8 e- + 9 H+ + NO3- ----> NH3 + 3 H2O)
24 27 3 3 9
32 8 8 32 24

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Practice Problems
5. Simplify and Add: 8(4 H2O + Al ----> Al(OH)4- + 4 H+ + 3 e-)
32 23 8 8 32 5 9 24

3(8 e- + 9 H+ + NO3- ----> NH3 + 3 H2O)


23 H2O + 8 Al + 3 NO3- ----> 8 Al(OH)4- + 5 H+ + 3 NH3

24

27

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Practice Problems
18 + 5 OH6. Change to basic solution: + 5 OH-

23 H2O + 8 Al + 3 NO3- ----> 8 Al(OH)4- + 5 H+ + 3 NH3

5 H2O
18 H2O + 5 OH- + 8 Al + 3 NO3- ---->8 Al(OH)4- + 3 NH3

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Practice Problems
1. MnO2 + HBr --> Br2 + MnBr2

2e- + 4 H+ + MnO2 ----> Mn2+ + 2 H2O

2 Br- ----> Br2 + 2e4 H+ + MnO2 + 2 Br- ----> Mn2+ + 2 H2O + Br2

112

Practice Problems
2. Cl2 + NaBr --> NaCl + Br2

2e- + Cl2 --> 2 Cl-

2 Br- --> Br2 + 2eCl2 + 2 Br- ----> 2 Cl- + Br2

113

Practice Problems
3. H2S +
3

HNO3 --> S
3

+
6

NO
6

3(H2S
6 82 2

----> S + 2 H+ + 2 e-)
2 4

2(3 e- + 4 H+ + NO3- ----> NO + 2 H2O)


3 H2S + 2 H+ + 2 NO3- ----> 3 S + 2 NO + 4 H2O

114

Practice Problems
4. PbO2
6 6

+ Sb --> PbO + NaSbO2 (base)


3 3 3

3(2 e- + 2H+ + PbO2 ----> PbO + H2O) 2(2 H2O + Sb ----> SbO2- + 4 H+ + 3 e-) 3 PbO2 + H2O + 2 Sb --->3 PbO + 2 SbO2- + 2 H+ 1 + 2 OH+ 2 OH 2 H2O 3PbO2 + 2 OH- + 2Sb --->3PbO + 2SbO2- + H2O
41 2 2 82 6

Sample Problems

115

1) Calculate the molarity(M) of 40.0 g NaOH in 700. mL of solution. 40.0 g 0.700 L mole = 1.43 M 40.0 g

Sample Problems
2) Explain how to prepare 2.0 L of 1.5 M LiBr.

116

2.0 L

1.5 mole 86.8 g

mole

= 260 g

Dissolve 260 g LiBr in some water, then dilute to a total volume of 2.0 L.

Sample Problems
3) Explain how to prepare 100. mL of 0.10 M HCl from 6.0 M HCl

117

mole HCl = mole HCl

MDVD = MCVC (0.10M)(100. mL) = (6.0 M)VC VC = 1.7 mL


Take 1.7 mL of 6.0 M HCl and dilute to a total volume of 100. mL.

Sample Problems
4) How many grams of solute is there in 50.0 mL of 0.15 M NaOH?

118

0.0500L

0.15 mole 40.0 g

mole

= 0.30 g