July, 2003 2003 by H.L.
Bertoni 1
IV. Propagation Characteristics
Observed in Macro / Micro Cells
Ray model of multipath propagation
Effects caused by multipath for narrowband
(CW) signals
Shadow fading
Range dependence in macrocells and
microcells
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 2
Direct Observation of Multipath at
the Mobile and at the Base Station
Direction of arrival measurements at the mobile
Time delay measurements
Measurement of spacetime rays
Ray model of propagation
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 3
Angles of Arrival at a Street Level
 CW Measurement at 900 MHz in Tokyo using 22 spot beam antenna 
T. Taga, "Analysis for Mean Effective Gain of Mobile Antennas in Land Mobile Radio Environments", IEEE Trans., VT 39, May 1990, p. 117.
From base station
Rows of
buildings
Mobile locations
along street
Received signal versus azimuth for various elevations
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 4
Received Power Envelope P(t) for
Omnidirectional Subscriber Antennas
Paris, France
Red Bank, NJ
Rays come in clusters that decay rapidly. Successive clusters have lower amplitudes.
J. Fuhl, JP. Rossi and E. Bonek, HighResolution 3D
DirectionofArrival Determination for Urban Mobile Radio,
" IEEE Trans. Ant. and Prop., vol. 45, pp. 672 682, 1997.
D.M.J. Devasirvatham, "Radio Propagation Studies in a Small
City for Universal Portable Communications, Proc. of the
IEEE VTC'88, pp. 100104,1988.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 5
Delay Spread for Continuous Time Signals
Mean Exc ess Delay
T
0
=
tP t ( )dt
0
}
P t ( )dt
0
}
RMS Delay Spread
t
RMS
2
=
t T
0
( )
2
P t ( )dt
0
}
P t ( )dt
0
}
T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River,
NJ, p.163, 1996.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 6
CDF of for Outdoor Links
 Measured at 1800 MHz for many subscriber location in Sweden
 Signals received at base station by horizontal and vertical antennas for
vertical subscriber antenna
RMS delay spread somewhat
larger in urban areas than
in suburban areas.
Co and cross Polarization
have nearly the same RMS
delay.
RMS delay of the average
power delay profile is
approximately the same as
the mean RMS delay spread.
M. Nilsson, B. Lindmark, M. Ahlberg, M. Larsson and C. Beckmanm,
"Measurements of the SpatioTemporal Polarization Characteristics of a Radio
Channel at 1800 MHz, Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 7
Greenstein Model of Measured DS in Urban and
Suburban Areas
DS = T
1km
R
km
where T
1km
is 0. 31. 0 s and
10log
is a Gaussian random variable
with standard deviation 2  6
Greenstein, et al., A New Path Gain/Delay Spread Propagation Model for Digital Cellular Channels, IEEE Trans. VT 46, May 1997.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 8
SpaceTime Rays Measured at Street Level
 890 MHz Measurement in Paris 
 Azimuth and time delay
of arriving rays
 Measured with system
having 0.1 s time resolution
 Street runs North and South
 Many rays arrive along
the street direction
J. Fuhl, JP. Rossi and E. Bonek, "HighResolution 3D
DirectionofArrival Determination for Urban Mobile Radio,
IEEE Trans. Ant. and Prop., vol. 45, pp. 672 682, 1997.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 9
SpaceTime Rays at an Elevated Base Station
 1800 MHz measurements in Aalborg, Denmark 
 Rays arrive at base station
from a limited range of
angles
 Rays are grouped into
clusters
 Time delay between clusters
~ 1 s, representing
scattering
from more distant buildings
 Time delay within a cluster
~ 100 ns
K.I. Pedersen, et al., "Analysis of Time, Azimuth and Doppler Dispersion
in Outdoor Radio Channels, Proc. ACTS, 1997.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 10
Delay Spread (DS) and Angle Spread (AS) for
Discrete Arrivals
Delay Spread
Angle Spread (approximate expression for small spread)
From mth ray from the jth mobile
( )
( )
( )
mobile) to direction from (measured station base at arrival of angle
delay time arrival
amplitude
= 
= t
=
j
m
j
m
j
m
A
DS
( j )
=
A
m
(j )
m
2
t
m
(j )
t
m
( j )
( )
2
A
m
( j )
2
m
where t
m
( j )
=
A
m
( j)
m
2
t
m
( j)
A
m
(j )
2
m
AS
( j)
=
A
m
( j )
m
2

m
( j)

m
( j )
( )
2
A
m
( j )
2
m
where 
m
( j )
=
A
m
(j )
m
2

m
( j )
A
m
(j )
2
m
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 11
Coordinate Invariant Method for
Computing AS
Coordinate invariant method:
Ray arrival angle 
n
measured from any x axis
Define the vector : u
n
= (a
x
cos
n
+ a
y
sin
n
)
AS =
180
t

\

.
u
n
U
2
A
n
2
n
A
n
2
n
=
180
t

\

.
1 U
2
( )
where U = (u
n
)A
n
2
n
A
n
2
n
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 12
CDF of RMS Angle Spreads
 Measured at 1800 MHz for many subscriber locations in Sweden
 Signals received at base station by horizontal and vertical antennas for
vertical subscriber antenna
RMS angle spread is larger
in urban areas than in in
suburban areas.
Co and cross polarization
have nearly the same RMS
angle spread.
M. Nilsson, et al., "Measurements of the
SpatioTemporal Polarization Characteristics of
a Radio Channel at 1800 MHz, Proc. IEEE
Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 13
Ray Model for Street Level Mobiles
Rays arrive from all directions in the horizontal plane and up to 45 in the
vertical direction
Ray paths shown for propagation from base station to subscriber
Reverse directions of arrows for propagation from subscriber to base station
Base Station
A
L ~ 30 m
A
t ~ 100 ns
AL ~ 3 km
At ~ 10 s
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 14
Ray Model of Received Voltage and Power
Complex received voltage envelope at position x along the street
V(x)e
j(x)
= A
n
e
jkL
n
e
j
n
n
where
A
n
= amplitude of the ray contribution
L
n
= path length of ray

n
= additional phase c hanges upon reflec tion,scattering
k = 2t / = 2tf /c
Rec eived power
P
R
(x) = V(x)e
j(x)
2
= A
n
A
m
m
e
j (
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n
L
m
)
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 15
Ray Fields Are Locally Like Plane Waves
v
n
x
L
n
(x)
Narrow family
of rays
Phase Front
For narrow bundle of rays, A
n
and 
n
are approximately constant
over a distance of several wave lengths.
Over a small region of space the phase front is approximately a
plane perpendicular to the direction v
n
of the central ray.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 16
Relation to Plane Wave Interference
Phase variation for small displacement s about a location x,
is approximately that of a plane wave
kL
n
(x + s) ~ kL
n 0
+ kv
n
( )
sa
x
( )
= kL
n0
+ ks v
n
( )
x
where v
n
( )
x
is the x component of the unit vec tor v
n
and
kL
n 0
is the phase of the central ray
Rec eived voltage is then
V(x)e
j(x)
= A
n
e
j(
n
kL
n0
)
exp jks v
n
( )
x
 
n
This expression is like that found for plane waves having
complex amplitude A
n
e
j (
n
kL
n0
)
and v
n
( )
x
= cosu
n
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 17
Small Area Average Power
Rec eived power P
R
(x) = V(x)e
j(x)
2
= A
n
A
m
m
e
j (
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n
L
m
)
The spatial average P
R
(x) of the power over x is
1
2W
P
R
(x + s)ds
W
W
}
=
A
n
A
m
m
e
j(
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n0
L
m0
)
1
2W
exp jks v
n
v
m
( )
x
 
ds
W
W
}
Provided 2W >1 k v
n
v
m
( )
x
for n = m,
1
2W
exp jks v
n
v
m
( )
x
 
ds
W
W
}
~ 0.
Hence
1
2W
exp jks v
n
v
m
( )
x
 
ds
W
W
}
~o
n,m
and P
R
(x) = A
n
2
n
Thus the spatial average power is equal to the sum of the ray powers.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 18
Summary of the Ray Model of Propagation
Propagation to or from the mobile can take place along
multiple paths (rays)
Multiple rays give RMS delay spreads ~ 0.5 s at R = 1 km
Rays arrive at the mobile from all directions in the horizontal
plane, and up to 45
o
in the vertical plane
Rays at the base station arrive in a wedge of width ~ 10
o
Interference effects of multipath contributions over distances
~ 10 m are like those of plane waves
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 19
Effects Caused by Multipath
for CW Excitation
Fast fading at street level
Correlation at mobile and base station
Other effects
Doppler spread
Slow time fading
Cross polarization coupling
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 20
Multipath Arrivals Set Up a Standing Wave
Pattern in Space
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 21
Interference Effects of Multiple Rays
V(x) = A
n
e
jkL
n
e
j
n
n
= A
n
A
m
e
j(
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n
L
m
)
m
`
)
1
2
Scattered rays coming from all directions result in :
1. Spatial fading  as subscriber moves a distance Ax ~ ,
the phases k(L
n
 L
m
) change by ~ 2t
2. Doppler spread  a subsc riber moving with velocity u sees
an apparent frequency changes v =
1
2t
k
d
dt
L
n
=
u
cosu
3. Frequencyfading  the phase k(L
n
 L
m
) = e c
( )
(L
n
 L
m
)
changes with frequency
4. Slow time fading  moving scatterers change some L
n
' s
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 22
Received Signal as Omni Antenna Moves
Through Standing Wave Pattern
 Rapid Fluctuation of 20dB or more
 Separations between minima ~ 0.2 m
 Wavelength at 910 MHz is = 0.33 m
 Slow fluctuation of the small area average
M. Lecours, I.Y. Chouinard, G.Y. Delisle and J. Roy, Statistical Modeling of the Received Signal Envelope in a
Mobile Radio Channel, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT37, pp. 204212, 1988.
Small area average
V (x) =
1
L
V(x + s)ds
L 2
L 2
}
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 23
Rayleigh and Rician
Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
C
D
F
r
Median value
= 0.939
K=5
Rayleigh CDF
Rician CDF
Define the random
varriable
r = V(x) V(x)
For line  of  sight
(LOS) paths, r is
approximately Rician
For non LOS
paths, r is
approximately Rayleigh
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 24
Complex Autocorrelation Function
Measures the degree to which the signal V(x)e
j(x)
received at one antenna
is predic ted by the signal V(x s)e
j(xs)
received at a second antenna
separated by a distance s .
Ergodic assumption: Statistical dependenc e over different embodiements
is same as averaging over many locations x.
For complex signals
C(s) =
1
2W
V(x)e
j(x)
V(x s)e
j(xs)
dx
W
W
}
`
)
1
2W
V(x)
 
2
dx
W
W
}
`
)
where 2W >> is the correlation window,assumed to be centered at x = 0.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 25
Autocorrelation Function for Ray Fields
If the voltage is the sum of ray fields V(x)e
j(x)
= A
n
e
jkL
n
(x)
e
j
n
n
Over distances of 10 20, we may approximate L
n
(x) ~ L
n 0
+ x(v
n
)
x
. Then
1
2W
V(x)e
j(x)
V(x s)e
j(xs)
dx
W
W
}
=
= A
n
A
m
m
e
j(
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n0
L
m0
)
e
jks(v
m
)
x
1
2W
exp jkx v
n
v
m
( )
x
 
dx
W
W
}
`
)
~ A
n
A
m
m
e
j(
n

m
)
e
jk(L
n0
L
m0
)
e
jks(v
m
)
x
o
nm
{ }= A
n
2
n
e
jks(v
n
)
x
Similarly
1
2W
V(x)
 
2
dx
W
W
}
~ A
n
2
n
so that C(s) = A
n
2
n
e
jks(v
n
)
x
A
n
2
n
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 26
C(s) Measured Street Level
Measurements made at
f = 821 MHz
= 0.365 m
Signal decorrelated
after s > /4
SB. Rhee and G.I. ZYsman, "Results of Suburban Base Station Spatial Diversity Measurements
in the UHF Band," IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. COM22, pp. 16301636, 1974.
Sample Number
s (m)
0.26 1 2 4
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 27
Correlation at Elevated Base Station
F. Adachi, et al., "Cross correlation between the envelopes of 900 MHz signals
received at a mobile radio base station site," IEE Proc., vol. 133, Pt. F, pp. 506
512, 1980.
Ray theory for small u
M
:
C(s) ~
sin ksu
M
sino
( )
ksu
M
sino
For o 0, C(s) 1
For o = 90
o
C(s) ~
sin ksu
M
( )
ksu
M
has first zero at
s = 2u
M
If u
M
= 5
o
= t 36 rad
then s = 6
Measured at 900 MHz in Liverpool, England
C
R
(s)
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 28
Summary of Fading at Both Ends of Link for an
Elevated Base Station
x
M
x
B
S
Elevated Base Station Mobile in Clutter
x
M
S
i
g
n
a
l
/2
x
B
S
S
i
g
n
a
l
/2
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 29
Measured Doppler Spread
K.I. Pedersen, et al., "Analysis of Time, Azimuth and Doppler Dispersion in Outdoor
Radio Channels, Proc. ACTS, 1997.
f = 1800 MHz
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 30
Frequency Fading Due to Multipath
(910 MHz in Toronto)
E.S. Sousa, et al, Delay Spread Measurements for the Digital Cellular
Channel in Toronto,IEEE Trans. on VT, VT43, pp. 837847, 1994.
Individual terms in the
expression for V(x) go
through 2t phase change
for frequency changes Af
satisfying
2tAf
c
L
i
L
j
( )
= 2t
solving for Af
Af =
c
L
i
L
j
( )
For differences in path
length L
i
L
j
( )
~1.2 km
Af = 0.25 MHz
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 31
Slow Time Fading Measured by
a Stationary Subscriber (900 MHz)
For a wave incident on a
moving scatterer at angle u
relative to the velocity u of
the scatterer, the scattered
wave will undergo 2t phase
change in time such that
uAt ~ .
At walking speed u = 1
m/s, and at 900 MHz,
At ~ 0.33 sec.
N.H. Shepherd, et al., "Special Issue on Radio
Propagation, IEEE Trans. On
Veh.Tech., vol. VT37, pp. 45, 1988.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 32
Local Scattering Produces
CrossPolarization
E
V
E
V
E
V
E
V
E
V
E
H
E
H
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 33
Cross Polarization Coupling Measured at Base
Stations in Sweden
Measured ratios of the
sector average power
received in the horizontal
and vertical polarized
fields (H/V) at 1800 MHz.
The error limits represent
one standard deviation
Lotse, et al., "Base Station Polarization
Diversity Reception in Macrocellular
Systems at 1800 MHz", Proc. VTC 96,
pp. 1643  1646
Environment
Mobile
configuration
Horizontalto
vertical power
ratio (dB)
Roofmounted 7 2
Portable, outdoors 4 2
Portable, inside van 3 2
Kungsholmen,
urban
Portable, indoors 1 4
Roofmounted 8 2
Portable, outdoors 2 1
Portable, inside van 1 1
Kista,
suburban
Portable, indoors 3 1
Roofmounted 13 1
Portable, outdoors 6 1
Portable, inside van 7 1
Veddesta,
suburban
Portable, indoors 7 1
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 34
Cross Correlation of Complex and Real Signals
Cross correlation of two complex functions with zero mean
C
R
=
E U(x)V

(x)
{ }
E U(x)
2
{ }
E V(x)
2
{ }
Cross correlation of two real functions with non  zero mean
C
R
=
E U(x) U(x)
 
V(x) V(x)
  { }
E U(x) U(x)
 
2
{ }
E V(x) V(x)
 
2
{ }
E  { } is the expectation value or average.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 35
Fast Fading Patterns of Horizontal and Vertical
Polarization Are Uncorrelated
Cross correlations of
the signals received by
horizontally and
vertically polarized base
station antennas for a
roof mounted mobile
antenna. Integration
taken as the mobile
travels over a travel
distance 2W = 10.
Lempiainen, et al.,"Experimental Results of
Cross Polarization Discrimination and Signal
Correlation Values for a Polarization Diversity
Scheme", Proc. VTC 97, pp.14981502.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 36
Summary of Multipath Effects
Multipath arrivals set up a standing wave pattern in space
that is perceived as fast fading by a moving mobile
Fast fading approximates Rayleigh statistics on NonLOS
links
Interference patterns have correlation length of /4 at the
mobile, and 6 or greater at an elevated base station
Multipath causes frequency fading, Doppler spread and slow
time fading
The scattering processes that create multipath also cause
depolarization of the waves
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 37
Statistical Properties of the
Shadow Fading
Separating the shadow fading from fast fading and range
dependence
Statistical distribution of shadow fading
Correlation distance of shadow fading
Correlation of shadow fading for signals from different base
stations
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 38
R n A R U
LS
log 10 log 10 ) ( =
). ( ) ( R U R U
LS k
( ) ) ( ) ( R U R U P
LS k
How to Find Shadow Fading From
Drive Test Measurements
Drive tests conducted over many small areas of
length > 20 at different distances R from base station
Find U
k
(R) = 10log ( V(x)
2
) for each small area k = 1, 2, ...
Plot U
k
(R) versus log R and fit data with a least squares line
having dependence of the form
For each sector compute For the resulting
set of numbers form the distribution function
The distribution function is typically found to be Gaussian
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 39
Separating Shadow Fading from Range
Dependence
Least Squares Fit
Small Area Average
U
LS
= 10log P
T
+10log A n10log R
corresponds to power law
P = P
T
A/ R
n
Small area average power plotted versus logR
U
k
U
LS
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 40
CDF of Shadow Fading Measured Simultaneously
at Two Frequencies (955 MHz and 1845 MHz)
Straight line plots for distorted scale
indicate that U
k
U
LS
( )
o is Gaussian
Fading distributions of small
area averages normalized to
Standard deviation o for:
U
k
(955) 8.0dB
U
k
(1845) 8.1dB
Difference Mean o
U
k
(955) 10.5 3.3dB
 U
k
(1845)
Small area averages o
Morgensen, et al., Urban Area Radio Propagation Measurements at 955
and 1845 MHz for Small and Micro Cells, Proc. Of Globecom, 1991
CDF
U
k
U
LS
o
`
)
U
k
U
LS
( )
o
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 41
Interpreting the Shadow Fading Statistics
8 dB
3.3 dB
x
U
k
(955) U(955)
U
k
(1845) U(1845)
U
k
U
( )
dB
At each frequency the shadow loss fluctuates by o = 8 dB about its average
Shadow loss at the two frequencies are highly correlated, differing from each
other by only o = 3.3 dB (correlation coefficient C = 0.92)
Shadow loss has weak frequency dependence.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 42
Multiple Distance Scales of Signal Variation
Travel distances ~ /2  Fast fading
Travel distances ~ 10 m ~ 20  Shadow fading
Entire cell out to ~ 20 km  Range dependence A/R
n
Distance
S
i
g
n
a
l
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
d
B
)
/2
Small Area Average
U Average Overall
U U
k
Fading Shadow
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 43
U
p U U
( )
=
1
2to
SF
exp U U
( )
2
/2o
SF
2
 
V(x)
2
=
4
t
V (x)
 
2
Shadow Fading Statistics
For many small areas (sectors) k = 1, 2, ... at the same
distance R from the base station
Treat ( V(x)
2
) over each small area as a random variable
Define new random variable U
k
= 10log ( V(x)
2
)
Probability distribution of U
k
about its mean value
is typically found to be the Gaussian distribution
In cities o
SF
~ 8 10 dB
Note: if V(x) is Rayleigh distributed, then
2o
SF
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 44
Autocorrelation of the Shadow Fading at
900MHz
Suburban Environment Urban Environment
250 m 5 m Decorrelation Distance
M.Gudmundson, Correlation Model for Shadow Fading in Mobile Radio Systems, Electronics Letts., vol. 27 pp. 21452146, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 45
Cross Correlation of the Shadow Loss for Links
to Two Different Base Stations
C(u )
u
u
A. Mawira, Models for the Spatial
Correlation Functions of the (Log)
Normal Component of the Variable
ity of VHF/UHF Field Strength in
Urban Environment,
IEEE 0780308417/92, 1992.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 46
Propagation Model for Shadow Fading
As the subscriber moves along street, the received signal passes over
buildings of different height, or misses the last row of buildings
S
t
r
e
e
t
a
n
d
s
i
d
e
w
a
l
k
s
Subscriber
From base station
Full width of Fresnel
zone near one end of link:
2w
F
= 2 s
For 900 MHz at mid street
s = 20 m, =1 3 m
2w
F
= 5.2 m
about the width of a house.
Shadow loss is not sensitive
to frequency.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 47
Summary of Shadow Fading Statistics
Shadow fading has lognormal distribution (power in dB has a
normal distribution)
Shadow fading has weak frequency dependence
Correlation length of the shadow fading is on the order of
building dimensions in cities and on street length in suburban
areas
There is correlation of the fading to different base stations
when they are located in the same direction from the mobile
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 48
Range Dependence of the Received Signal
High base station antenna measurements for macrocells
( for R out to 20 km )
Low base station antenna measurements for microcells
( for R out to 2 km )
Line of sight(LOS) paths
Obstructed paths
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 49
Range Dependence of Macrocells & Microcells
Early system using macrocells (R < 20 km)
Base station antennas well above buildings
Isotropic propagation with range variation A/R
n
Hexagonal tessellation of plane
Frequency reuse independent of antenna height
Modern systems using microcells (R < 2 km)
Base station antenna near (or below) rooftops
Anisotropic propagation A, n depend on:
Direction of propagation relative to street grid
Base station antenna height, location relative to buildings
Cell shape is open issue
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 50
Scale of City Blocks Compare to Cell Size
0km 1 2 3 4
ELMHURST
FLUSHING
JACKSON HEIGHTS
CORONA
FLUSHING
MEADOWS
REGO PARK
HILLCREST
UTOPIA
EAST
ELMHURST
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 51
Measurements of Propagation Characteristics in
Different Cities for High Base Station Antennas
Field Strength and Its Variability in VHF and UHF
LandMobil Radio Service
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 52
Range Dependence Measured in Tokyo
Y. Okumura, E. Ohmori, T. Kawano and K. Fukuda, Field Strength and Its Variability in VHF and UHF LandMobile
Radio Service, Re. Elec. Com. Lab., vol. 16, pp. 825873, 1968.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 53
Range Dependence Measurements in
Philadelphia at 820 MHz
G.D. Ott and A. Plitkins, Urban PathLoss Characteristics at 820 MHz, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. VT27, pp.
189197, 1978.
Base station in a high rise
Building environment
Base station in a residential
environment
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 54
Range Dependence for Composite of Five Base
Station Sites in Philadelphia at 820 MHz
G.D. Ott and A. Plitkins, Urban PathLoss Characteristics
at 820 MHz, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. VT27, pp. 189
197, 1978.
Power law variation
P
dBm
= P
T
( )
dBm
+10log A n10log R
or
P = P
T
A R
n
( )
Path loss index
n = 3.68
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 55
Definition of Path Loss and Path Gain
PG Path Gain =
Power Received
Power Transmitted
( PG is always less than 1 )
PL Path Loss =
Power Transmitted
Power Received
=
1
PG
( PL is always greater than 1 )
When expressed in dB, PG
dB
=10log PG= L where
L 10log PL
If P = P
T
A/ R
n
, then PG
dB
=10log A 10nlog R and
L = 10log A+10nlog R
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 56
HataOkumura Model for Median Path Loss
Urban area:
L
50
= 69.55 + 26.16
log
f
c
 13.82 log
h
b
 a(h
m
) + (44.96.55 log
h
b
) log R
where
f
c
frequency (MHz)
L
50
mean path loss (dB)
H
b
base station antenna height
a(h
m
) correction factor for mobile antenna height (dB)
R distance from base station (km)
The range of the parameters for which Hatas model is valid is
150 s f
c
s 1500 MHz
30 s h
b
s 200 m
1 s h
m
s 10 m
1 s R s 20 km
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 57
HataOkumura Model (cont.)
Urban area (cont.):
For a small or mediumsized city:
a(h
m
)=(1.1 log
f
c
 0.7) h
m
 (1.56 log
f
c
 0.8 ) dB
For a large city:
a(h
m
)=8.29(log
1.54 h
m
)
2
 1.1 dB,
f
c
s 200 MHz
or
a(h
m
)=3.2(log
11.75 h
m
)
2
 4.97 dB,
f
c
> 400 MHz
Suburban area:
Open Area:
L
50
= L
50
(urban)  4.78 (log f
c
)
2
+18.33 (log f
c
) 40.94
L
50
= L
50
urban ( )  2 log
f
c
28

\

.
(
(
2
+ 5.4
`
)
dB
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 58
Range index of HataOkumura Model
n = ( 44.9  6.55 logh
b
) / 10
20 200
h
b
(m)
3.84
2.98
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 59
Measurement of Path Loss for
Low Base Station Antennas of Microcells
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 60
Drive Routes for Microcell Measurements
in San Francisco
LOS drive route
Staircase drive route
ZigZag drive route
Transverse paths  directly over buildings
Lateral paths  to side streets perpendicular to the LOS street
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 61
Mission District of San Francisco
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 62
Drive Routes In the Mission District
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 63
Received Signal on LOS Route in Mission
f = 1937 MHz, h
BS
= 3.2 m, h
m
= 1.6 m
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 64
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
Received Signal on Staircase Route in
the Sunset District vs. Distance Traveled
f = 1937 MHz, h
BS
= 8.7 m, h
m
= 1.6 m
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 65
Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R
on Staircase Route in Sunset District
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 66
Received Signal on ZigZag Route in
the Sunset District vs. Distance Traveled
f = 1937 MHz, h
BS
= 8.7 m, h
m
= 1.6 m
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 67
Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on the
Transverse Portions of the ZigZag Route
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 68
Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R
on the Lateral Portions of the ZigZag Route
Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 69
Comparison of Regression Fits on
Different Paths in Sunset
H.H. Xia, et al., Microcellular Propagation Characteristics for Personal Communications in Urban and
Suburban Environments, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 743752, 1994.
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 70
HarXiaBertoni Model for
Low Base Station Antennas
Expressions fit to regression lines for:
900 MHz and 1900 MHz
h
BS
= 3.2, 8.7 and 13.4 m
h
m
= 1.6 m
Separate expressions for:
LOS paths
Obscured paths in residential environment
Obscured paths in high rise environment
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 71
HarXiaBertoni Model for LOS Paths
( )
( ) ( )
( )   ( )
( )
k b
b bk G bk k
bk k
k b b G k
bk k
m
m b
bk
k
G
R h
h R f R R L
R R
R h h f R L
R R
h
h h
R
R
f
log log 90 . 13 10 . 32
log log 90 . 13 34 . 25 log 70 . 45 log 10 . 32 38 . 48
) (
log log 73 . 5 80 . 15 log 09 . 0 log 40 . 39 14 . 81
) (
6 . 1
1000
4
+ +
+ + =
>
+ + =
<
= ~
=
=
segment out  Far
segment in  Near
m
km in distance
GHz in frequency
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 72
HarXiaBertoni Model for Obscured Paths in
Residential Environments
( )     ( ) ( )
( ) ( )  
( )     ( ) ( )
( ) ( )  
k
G G k
k
G G k
k
G
R h h
h h f f R L
R h h
h h f f R L
h
R
f
log 1 log sgn 70 . 6 18 . 29
1 log sgn log 35 . 4 05 . 13 log 63 . 31 39 . 127
log 1 log sgn 35 . 4 06 . 40
1 log sgn log 58 . 4 74 . 13 log 88 . 38 31 . 138
A + A +
A + A + + =
A + A +
A + A + + =
= A
=
=
: Paths Lateral
: paths transverse and staircase Combined
m in buildings (below) above station base of height
km in distance
GHz in frequency
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 73
HarXiaBertoni Model for Obscured Paths
in High Rise Environments
f
G
= frequency in GHz
R
k
= distance in km
h
b
= height of base station above ground in m
Combined staircase paths and transverse paths
L R
k
( )
=143.21+ 29.74log f
G
0.99logh
b
+ 47.23+ 3.72log h
b
( )
logR
k
Lateral paths
L R
k
( )
=135.41+12.49log f
G
4.99logh
b
+ 46.84 + 2.34 log h
b
( )
logR
k
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 74
Comparison of Hata and Har Models
For base station antenna heights outside measurement
limits of both models
For f =1 GHz
Hata urban area
L = 69.55 + 26.16log100013.82log20 + 44.9 6.55log20
( )
log R
k
=130.0 + 36.4log R
k
Har combined staircase and transverse (residential)
L =138.3113.74log(1+ 9) + 40.06 4.35log(1+ 9)
 
log R
k
=124.6 + 35.7logR
k
Two models go into each other for middle height base station antennas
h
m
= 1.6 m
h
BS
= 20 m
Ah = 9 m
July, 2003 2003 by H.L.Bertoni 75
Summary of Range Dependence
Range dependence over large distances takes the form
(P
R
/P
Tr
)
= A/R
n
in watts or
10log (P
R
/P
Tr
)
= 10logA + 10nlogR in dB
The slope index n ranges between 3 and 4 for base station
antennas above the rooftops, and is the same for all cities
Simple formulas fit to measurements give the path gain or
path loss as a function of antenna height and frequency
Measurements made with high base station antennas match
continuously with measurements made with low antennas