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Management as an Inborn or Acquired Ability

Prior to 1880 there has been a leading concept that management is an inborn ability Today, in large-sized business organizations, ownership and management are separate identities

Management as a Science
Management Science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that help to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems

The models used can often be represented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual or verbal representations are used. The range of problems and issues to which management science has contributed insights and solutions is vast. Scheduling airlines, both planes and crew, deciding the appropriate place to site

Managing the flow of water from reservoirs, Identifying possible future development paths for parts of the telecommunications industry, Establishing the information needs and Appropriate systems to supply them within the health service, Identifying and understanding the strategies adopted by companies for their information systems

Management as a Science
A systematized body of knowledge

based on proper findings and exact principles and is capable of verification It is a reservoir of fundamental truths and its findings apply safely in all the situations. In this sense, management is a

Like other sciences, management has also developed certain principles, laws, generalization, which are universal in nature and are applicable wherever the efforts of the people are to be coordinated. The main reason for the inexactness of science of management is that it deals with the people and it is very difficult to predict their behaviour accurately.

Management as an Art
Management as an Art Art refers to the way of doing specific things; it indicates how an object can be achieved.

George R. Terry, "Art is bringing about of a desired result through the application of skill." Management is certainly an art as a manager uses his skill, knowledge and experience in solving various problems, both complicated and non-

Management is an Art and Science Both

"Management is the art and science of preparing, organizing and directing human efforts to control the forces and utilize the material of nature for the benefit of men.

Functions of Managers
Planning Organizing Staffing


Roles performed by managers

Informational: This role involves the sharing and analyzing of information Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. Decisional: This role involves decision making.

Category Role Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison

Activity Seek and receive information; scan periodicals and reports; maintain personal contact with stakeholders. Forward information to organization members via memos, reports, and phone calls. Transmit information to outsiders via reports, memos, and speeches. Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties, such as greeting visitors and signing legal documents. Direct and motivate subordinates; counsel and communicate with subordinates. Maintain information links both inside and outside organization via mail, phone calls, and meetings. Initiate improvement projects; identify new ideas and delegate idea responsibility to others. Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolve conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environments. Decide who gets resources; prepare budgets; set schedules and determine priorities. Represent department during negotiations of union contracts, sales, purchases, and budgets.


Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator


Communication Listening Skills Leadership Focus Division of Work

Managerial Environments
A manager's environment is made up of constantly changing factors both external and internal

The External Environment

Directly interactive forces Indirectly interactive forces

Directly interactive forces

Owners expect managers to watch over their interests and provide a return on investments. Customers demand satisfaction with the products and services they purchase and use. Suppliers require attentive communication, payment, and a strong working relationship to provide needed resources. Competitors present challenges as they vie for customers in a marketplace with similar products or services. Employees and employee unions provide both the people to do the jobs and the representation of work force concerns to

Indirectly interactive forces

Political Legal, Technological,

Global influences

The Internal Environment

Current Employees Management Especially corporate culture