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Heat Treatment of Steels

PRESENTED BY

DEEPAK KUMAR NAYAK

07318

VAIBHAV SRIVASTAVA

07319

ANURAG BHARDWAJ

07320

MAYANK SHARMA

07321

ABHINAV KAPILA

07323

RAJAT MAHAJAN

07324

ANKIT SOOD

07325

VIPAN KUMAR

07203

Topics to be discussed

Heat treatments Annealing Normalizing Tempering

Martensitic transformations Critical temperature on heating and cooling

Annealing

material

is

Annealing

a

heat

treatment

wherein

a

is altered, causing changes in its properties such

as strength cold

and hardness. In

it a previously

worked metal crystalline.

is softened by allowing

it

to

In the cases of copper, steel, silver, and brass this

process is performed by substantially heating the

Purpose

The

purpose

of

annealing

has

following

aims:

To

soften

the

steel

and

to

improve

machinability.

To relieve internal stresses induced by some previous treatment (rolling, forging, uneven cooling).

Stages

There are 2 stages in the annealing process :

The recovery phase The recrystallization

The Recovery Phase

In this

step softening of the metal through

removal of crystal defects takes place and the internal stresses which are caused by these defects.

Recovery phase

covers all

phenomena

that

occur

annealing

before

the

appearance of new strain-free grains.

The recrystallization

New strain-free grains nucleate and grow

to

replace

stresses.

those

deformed

by

internal

If annealing is allowed to

recrystallization

has

been

will

occur,

in

continue once

completed,

grain growth

which

the

microstructure starts

to

coarsen and may

cause the metal

to

FULL ANNEALING

Full annealing is the process of slowly raising the temperature about 50 0 C(90 0 F) above the Austenitic temperature line A 3 or line A CM in the

case

of

Hypoeutectoid steels (steels with <

0.77%

Carbon)

and

50 0 C

(90 0 F)

into

the

Austenite-

Cementite

region

in

the

case

of

Hypereutectoid

steels

(steels

with

>

0.77%

Carbon).

It is held at this temperature for sufficient time for all the material to transform into Austenite or Austenite- Cementite as the case may be. It is then slowly cooled at the rate of about 20 0 C/hr (36 0 F/hr) in a furnace to about 50 0 C (90 0 F) into the Ferrite- Cementite range. At this point, it can be cooled in room temperature air with natural convection

PROCESS ANNEALING

It is used to treat work-hardened parts made out of low-Carbon steels (< 0.25% Carbon). This allows the parts to be soft enough to undergo further cold working without fracturing. Process annealing is done by raising the temperature to just below the Ferrite-Austenite region, line A 1 on the diagram.

This temperature is about 727 0 C (1341 0 F) so heating it to about 700 0 C (1292 0 F) should suffice. This is held long enough to allow recrystallization of the ferrite phase, and then cooled in still air. Since the material stays in the same phase through out the process, the only change that occurs is the size, shape and distribution of the grain structure.

This process is cheaper than either full annealing or normalizing since the material is not heated to a very high temperature or cooled in a furnace.

Spheroidization

It is an annealing process used for high carbon steels (Carbon > 0.6%) that will be machined or cold formed subsequently. This is done by one of the following ways:

1. Heat the part to a temperature just below the Ferrite-Austenite line, line A 1 or below the Austenite- Cementite line, essentially below the 727 0 C

(1340 0 F) line. Hold the temperature for a prolonged time and follow by fairly slow cooling.

2. Cycle multiple times between temperatures slightly above and slightly below the 727 0 C (1340 0 F) line, say for example between 700 and 750 0 C (1292 – 1382 0 F), and slow cool.

3. For tool and alloy steels heat to 750 to 800 0 C (1382-1472 0 F) and hold for several hours followed by slow cooling.

All these methods result in a structure in which all the Cementite is in the form of small globules (spheroids) dispersed throughout the ferrite matrix. This structure allows for improved machining in continuous cutting operations such as lathes and screw machines. Spheroidization also improves resistance to abrasion

Normalizing

DEFINITION

A heat treatment process

that has

the

object

of relieving internal stresses,

refining the grain size and improving the

mechanical properties.

The

steel

is

heated to 800-900 o C according

to

analysis, held at temperature to allow a

HOW IT DIFFERS FROM ANNEALING

It differs from annealing in that :-

1.The

metal

is

heated

temperature and then the furnace for air cooling.

to

higher removed from

a

2.Thin pieces cool faster and are harder

In

after normalizing than thick ones.

annealing (furnace cooling), the hardness of the two are about the same.

3.Normalized steels are harder and stronger

In

the

normalized

than annealed steels.

condition, steel is much tougher than in any

other structural condition

PURPOSE OF NORMALIZING

  • To produce a harder and stronger steel than full annealing

  • To improve the machinability

  • To modify and refine the grain structure

  • To obtain a relatively good ductility without reducing the hardness and strength

  • To

homogenize the structure in

improve

the

response

to

operations.

order to hardening

  • Normalizing

forgings

is

applied

to

castings

and

Because of increased cooling rates as compared to furnace cooling affects the transformation of austenite. Since there is less time for the formation of the proeutectoid constituent, consequently there will be less proeutectoid ferrite in normalized hypoeutectoid steels id

d l

t

t

• Because of increased cooling rates as compared to furnace cooling affects the transformation of austenite.

COMPARISON BETWEEN NORMALIZED AND ANNEALED STEELS

Ductility of annealed and normalized steels.

Annealing

 

and

normalizing

do

not

present

a

significant

difference

on

the

ductility of low carbon

steels.

As the carbon content increases,

-annealing maintains

the

%

around 20%.

elongation

-the ductility of the h

li

d

hi

Tensile strength of normalized and annealed steels.

Tensile strength

normalized

higher

of the are the

steels

than

annealed steels. Normalizing

and

annealing do not show

a significant difference

on the tensile strength

of

the

steels.

low

carbon

Normalized high carbon steels has much higher t

il

t

th

th

Hardness of normalized and annealed steels.

Hardness of normalized and annealed steels. • Low and medium carbon steels can maintain similar hardness

Low and medium carbon steels can maintain similar hardness levels when normalized or annealed.

When high carbon steels are normalized they maintain higher levels of hardness than those that are annealed

Yield point of annealed and normalized steels

Yield

point

of

 

the

normalized

steels

are

higher

than

the

annealed steel.

 

Normalizing

 

and

 

annealing do not show

a significant difference

on

yield

point

of

the

low carbon steels.

Normalized high carbon steels present much higher yield point than

Martensitic Transformation

Under

slow

cooling

rate,

the

carbon atom

diffuses out of austenite structure. The Iron atoms

then move to become B.C.C.

The gamma to alpha transformation takes place by a process of nucleation and growth and is time- dependent.

With

a

still

further increase in

cooling rate,

insufficient time is allowed for the carbon to diffuse

out of the solution, although some movement of iron atoms takes place, the structure cannot become B.C.C. while the carbon is trapped inside the solution.

The resultant solution is called Martensite, is a super saturated solid solution of carbon trapped in a body centered tetragonal structure.

Purpose of hardening

The basic purpose of hardening is to produce a

fully

martensitic structure, and the minimum

cooling rate

( 0 F

per second )that

will

avoid the

formation

of

any

of

the

softer

products

of

transformations is known as the critical cooling

rate.

The critical cooling rate, determined by chemical composition and austenitic grain size, is an

important property of a steel

since it indicates

how fast a steel must be cooled in order to form

only martensite

Hardening Mechanism

Two dimensions of the unit cell are equal, but the third is slightly expanded because of the trapped carbon.

The

axial

ratio

c/a

increases,

with carbon

content to a maximum of 1.08%.

The highly distorted lattice structure is

the

prime

reason

for

the

High

hardness

of

Mechanism of hardening

Mechanism of hardening

Microstructure of martensite

After cooling

drastic

(quenching),

martensite

appears

microscopically

as

a

white

needlelike structure described as pile of straw.

In

most

steels,

the

martensitic

Microstructure of martensite • After cooling drastic (quenching), martensite appears microscopically as a white needlelike structure

Martensitic transformation characteristics

1. Various microstructures occur depending on Carbon content of steel

~0.2 wt% C well-defined laths of martensite

~0.6 wt% C plates of martensite form, mixed with laths

~1.2 wt% C well-defined plates of martensite

2. Martensitic transformation is diffusion less (no time for atoms to intermix)

3.

No

compositional

change to parent phase

(relative position of carbon atoms with respect t

t

i

t

id

ti

l

t

it

t)

.6% c 1.2%

.6% c

.6% c 1.2%

.2%

.6% c 1.2%

1.2%

Continued….

4.

Crystal

structure changes from BCC to body

centered tetragonal as carbon content increases (solid solubility difference of C in FCC austenite and BCC ferrite)

5. Martensitic transformation begins at definite

temperature

called

M s

being

chemical composition only.

dependent

on

6.The most significant property of martensite is its

potential of being

very hard.

The

hardness of

martensite increases rapidly at first reaching upto about 0.4% carbon. Its also a result of severe lattice distortions by its formation, since the amount of carbon present is many times more

Martensitic transformation temperature

Martensitic transformation temperature

Tempering

Definition

Tempering

is

a

heat

treatment process

accomplished by heating steel to a temperature below the eutectoid temperature for a specified period of time.

According to ASME Metals Handbook, Reheating hardened steel to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature to decrease hardness and/or increase toughness is called tempering.

Generally, it is studied for martensite

l

structure of

Eutectoid Reaction

Eutectoid Reaction

Martensite

Of all the microstructures that can be produced for a given steel alloy, martensite is the Hardest Strongest Most Brittle

Applications: crankshafts, spanners, high-tension bolts.

Martensite needs to be tempered to obtain better

ductility.

This happens when ferrite is allowed to precipitate from the

Structure

Martensite has Body

Centered

Tetragonal

Structure(BCT).

The circles represent

iron

atoms

and

crosses

represent

carbon atoms.

Martensite is formed by the rapid cooling of FCC Austenite to bi

Structure Martensite has Body Centered Tetragonal Structure(BCT). The circles represent iron atoms and crosses represent carbon

Normally, tempering is carried out at temperatures between 250 °and 650 °C (480 °and 1200 °F) even though internal stresses may be relieved at temperatures as low as 200 °C (390 °F).

Significant Points-

  • 5. The microstructure of tempered martensite consists of extremely small and uniformly dispersed cementite particles embedded within a continuous ferrite matrix.

  • 6. Tempered martensite may be nearly as hard and strong as martensite, but with substantially enhanced ductility and toughness.

  • 7. The hard cementite phase reinforces the ferrite matrix along the boundaries, and these boundaries also act as barriers to dislocation motion during plastic deformation.

  • 8. The continuous ferrite phase is also very ductile and relatively tough which accounts for the improvement of

Martensite (BCT, single phase)

Tempered martensite (α +

Martensite (BCT, single phase) Tempered martensite (α + Tensile and yield strengths and ductility (%RA) versus

Tensile and yield strengths and ductility (%RA) versus tempering temperature for an oil-

The changes during the tempering of martensite can be categorized into stages.

During the first stage, excess carbon in solid solution segregates to defects or forms clusters within the solid solution. It then precipitates, either as cementite in low- carbon steels, or as transition iron-carbides in high-carbon alloys. The carbon concentration that remains in solid solution may be quite large if the precipitate is a transition carbide.

Further annealing leads to stage 2, in which almost all of the excess carbon is precipitated, and the carbides all convert into more stable cementite. Any retained austenite may decompose during this stage.

Continued tempering then leads to the coarsening of

Temper Embrittlement

Tempering is frequently necessary to reduce the hardness of martensite and increase toughness,

But

The heat-treatment can lead to embrittlement when the steel contains impurities such as phosphorus, antimony, tin and sulphur. This is because these impurities tend to segregate to the prior austenite grain boundaries and reduce cohesion across the boundary plane, resulting in

Tempering at temperatures around 650 promotes the segregation of impurity elements such as phosphorous to the

Tempering at temperatures around 650 o promotes the segregation of impurity elements such as phosphorous to the prior austenite grain boundaries, leading to intergranular

Critical temp. on heating and cooling

Definition- The temperatures at which the transformations in the solid state takes place are called critical temperatures.

there are two types of transformation :

On heating On cooling

At

a

temperature just

, the structures

above A C1

of steel being considered will be composed of grains of pro eutectoid ferrite and the grains of austenite.

Heating

transformation

• As the temperature is raise above A the ferrite will be C1 transformed to austenite
• As the temperature is raise
above A
the ferrite will be
C1
transformed
to
austenite
gradually
until,
at
the
a
temperature,
the
transformation
will
be
completed.
in
hypo
eutectoid
steels
the transformation of steel
begins
at
the
A C3,1
temperature
by
the
transformation of pearlite
to austenite. Heating the
steel above to temperature
above A C3,1 will bring about
the
solution
of
pro
eutectoid cementite in the

Cooling transformations

Steel containing .3% carbon is cooled slowly

from

above

the

A C3

temperature, pro

eutectoid ferrite will begin to precipitate from the austenite at A r3 point.

Upon slow cooling a hypereutectoid steel, proeutectoid cementite will begin to precipitate at the A CM temperature.

Also,

the

transformation

of

austenite

of

eutectoid composition involves the simultaneous transformation of gamma to alpha iron and the precipitation of cementite

References

Introduction to physical Metallurgy

  • - by Sidney H Avener

Physical Metallurgy for Engineers

  • - by Donald S Clark and Wilbur R Varney

Material Science and Engineering

  • - by William D Callister

Images taken from web resources.