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Introduction to Management Accounting

FIFTEENTH EDITION

Charles T. Horngren, Stanford University Gary L. Sundem, University of Washington Seattle

William O. Stratton, Dixie State College of Utah


David Burgstahler, University of Washington Seattle Jeff Schatzberg, University of Arizona
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Introduction to Management Accounting


Chapter 1

Managerial Accounting, the Business Organization, and Professional Ethics

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Chapter 1 Learning Objectives


When you have finished studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the major users and uses of accounting information. 2. Describe the cost-benefit and behavioral issues involved in designing an accounting system. 3. Explain the role of budgets and performance reports in planning and control.
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Chapter 1 Learning Objectives

4. Discuss the role accountants play in the companys value-chain functions. 5. Explain why accounting is important in a variety of career paths. 6. Identify current trends in management accounting. 7. Explain why ethics and standards of ethical conduct are important to accountants.

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Learning Objective 1

Users of Accounting Information


Financial Accounting External Users Investors: Stockholders

Management Accounting Internal managers

Decisions: Day-to-day operating Long-range strategic

Creditors: Suppliers Bankers


Government Authorities

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Decision Making
Scorekeeping: Evaluate Organizational Performance Problem Solving: Assess Possible Courses of Action

Attention Directing: Compare Actual Results to Expected

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Accounting Information System

Process of gathering, organizing, and communicating financial information

Financial Statements

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Learning Objective 2

Cost-Benefit and Behavioral Considerations


Behavioral implications
The system must provide accurate, timely budgets and performance reports in a form useful to managers.

Cost-benefit balance

Weigh estimated costs against probable benefits.

Managers must use accounting reports, or the reports create no benefits.

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Planning and Control

Accounting information helps managers plan and control the organizations operations.

Planning: Setting objectives and outlining how the objectives will be obtained.

Control: Implementing plans and using feedback to evaluate the attainment of objectives.

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The Nature of Planning and Controlling


Management Process Internal Accounting System

Corrections and revisions of plans and actions

Planning Increase Profitability

Budgets, Special Reports

Other information systems


Customer surveys

Accounting System Control Actions Evaluations

Competitor analysis
Advertising impact New items report

Performance Reports

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Learning Objective 3

Budget and Performance Reports

Budget: quantitative expression of a plan of action

Performance reports: compare actual results with budgeted amounts provide feedback by comparing results with plans highlight variances

Variances: deviations from plans

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Performance Reports
Mayfair Starbucks Store, March 31, 20X1
Sales Less: Ingredients Store labor Other labor Utilities, etc. Total expenses Operating income
Budget $50,000 22,000 12,000 6,000 4,500 $44,500 $ 5,500 Actual $50,000 24,500 11,600 6,050 4,500 $46,650 $ 3,350 Variance 0 $2,500 U 400 F 50 U 0 $2,150 U $2,150 U

U= Unfavorable actual exceeds budget F Favorable actual is less than budget


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Product Life Cycle

Product life cycle refers to the various stages through which a product passes.

No Sales

Sales Growth

Stable Sales Level

Low sales No sales

Product Development

Introduction to Market

Mature Market

Phase-out Product

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The Value Chain


Research and Development Product And Service Process Design

Service

Customer Focus

Distribution
Marketing

Production

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Learning Objective 4

Management Accountants Role as Internal Consultant


Prepares standardized reports Internal Consultant

Collects and compiles information

Interprets and Analyzes information

Is Involved in decision making

Management
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Organizational Authority and Responsibility


Line managers: directly involved with making and selling products or services.

Staff managers: Advisory Support line managers.

Cross-functional teams: Found in modern, flatter organizations; Functional areas work together in decision-making process.

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Accounting Function
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
Controller Functions
Planning for control Reporting and interpreting Evaluating and consulting Tax administration

Treasurer Functions
Provision of capital
Investor relations Short-term financing Banking and custody

Government reporting
Protection of assets Economic appraisal

Credits and collections


Investments Risk management (insurance)
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Learning Objective 5

Career Opportunities in Management Accounting

The Certified Management Accountant (CMA)

CMAs must pass a four-part examination: 1. Business Analysis 2. Management accounting and reporting 3. Strategic Management, and 4. Business Applications.

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Learning Objective 6

Management Accounting Change Drivers

Shift from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy Increased global competition Advances in technology Changes in business processes
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Major Influences on Management Accounting


Advances in technology: E-commerce Enterprise resource planning (ERP) B2C and B2B Business process reengineering: Just-in-time (JIT) philosophy Lean manufacturing Computer-integrated manufacturing Six sigma

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Ethics
Reliability
Trust Integrity

No regulation can be as effective in ensuring reliability as high ethical standards of accountants.

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