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CHAPTER 9: MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

Sulphuric Acid
Name: Muhd Iqbal bin Husni Nizad Nurul Shyazwani bt. Ramdzan Nurain Nasuha bt. Tajul Arafat

Class : 4K1
Instructor: En. Mohd Nor b. Latif

GENERAL
Sulphuric acid is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid The molecular formula for sulphuric acid is HSO Sulphuric acid, is a non-volatile diprotic acid Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscuos colourless liquid. Manufacture of sulphuric acid is one of the most important chemical industries in the present time.

USES OF SULPHURIC ACID


1.

Manufacture of fertiliser

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (super-phosphate) [reaction between sulphuric acid and tricalcium phosphate]

Ammonia sulphate [reaction between sulphuric acid and aqueous ammonia]

Potassium sulphate [reaction sulphuric acid between potassium hydroxide]

2.

Manufacture of detergents (synthetic cleaning agents)

Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then neutralised with sodium hydroxide to produce detergent.

3.

Manufacture of synthetic fibres (polymers)


Example : Rayon Produce by reaction between sulphuric acid on cellulose.

4.

In school laboratory
Strong acid Drying or dehydrating agent Oxidising agent Sulphonating agent Catalyst

5.

Manufacture of white pigment in paint barium sulphate,


Neutralisation between sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces Barium sulphate.

MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID

1.Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process in industry. 2.The raw materials used in the Contact process are sulphur (or sulphide minerals), air and water. 3. This process contains three stages.

Production of Sulphur Dioxide from Sulphur

Conversion of Sulphur Dioxide to Sulphur Trioxide

Production of Sulphuric Acid from Sulphur Trioxide

Sulphur or metal sulphide burned in air Sulphur dioxide, SO (i) VO as the catalyst (ii) Temperature of 450 C- 550 C (iii) Pressure of 1 atmosphere Sulphur trioxide, SO Dissolved in concentrated HSO

Oleum, HSO
Diluted with equal volume of HO Concentrated sulphuric acid, HSO

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

STAGE 3

STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur i. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide, SO S + O SO

This can be done by two methods:

1.Burning of sulphur in dry air in the furnace


S + O SO

2. Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide or iron(III) sulphide in dry

air.
2ZnS + 3O 2SO + 2ZnO

STAGE 2: Conversion of Sulphur Dioxide, SO to Sulphur Trioxide, SO 1. The sulphur dioxide gas, SO is dried and purified before being added to dry air to produce sulphur trioxide gas, SO.

2. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst in the converter 3. The optimum conditions are 1. a)Temperature of between 450-500C 2. b)Pressure of 1 atmosphere 3. c)Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide

STAGE 3: Production of Sulphuric Acid from Sulphur Trioxide 1. In the absorber, sulphur trioxide, SO is dissolve in concentrated sulphuric acid to produce oleum, HSO, a viscous liquid. SO + HSO acid (98%) HSO + HO 2HSO HSO

2. Then, the oleum is diluted with an equal volume of water to produce concentrated sulphuric

3. The two reactions in this stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO to water, HO SO + HO HSO

OUTLINE OF CONTACT PROCESS

SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND ENVIROMENTAL POLLUTION

SULPHUR DIOXIDE

Sulphur dioxide is present to some extent in the natural unpolluted air and is considered non-polluting as it is of low concentration. They come from: -bacteria decay of organic matter -volcanic gases -forest fires Sulphur is found in coal and petroleum. When they are burnt, they produce sulphur dioxide. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)

When they are released into the atmosphere, they pollute the air.

In fact, the burning of coal and oil is the major source of sulphur dioxide pollution in our environment. This gas is considered as the most serious health hazard among the pollutants. This is true especially for people with respiratory difficulties. The release of sulphur dioxide gas to the atmosphere can be reduced by reacting the gas with : (a) calcium carbonate SO2(g) + CaCO3(s) CaSO3(s) + CO2(g) (b) calcium oxide i) CaO(s) + SO2 CaSO3(s) ii) 4CaO(s) + 4SO2(g) +2O2(g) 4CaSO4(g)

Acid rain Acid rain happens when:

SO dissolves in water or rain, they form sulphurous acid HSO

CO dissolves in water to form carbonic acid HCO

Atmospheric SO can also be oxidised to SO. When SO dissolves in water,it forms sulphuric acid HSO

Acid rain

ACID RAIN AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Bad effects of acid rain


Damage marble structures a) The chemical compound in marble is calcium carbonate. b) The acid rain reacts with calcium carbonate to release carbon dioxide. CaCO(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca+(aq) + CO(g) + HO(l)

1.

2.

Damage to metal structures a) All acids react with active metals such as aluminium, iron and zinc. Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) Fe+(aq) + H(g) b) Therefore acids increase the rate of corrosion of meal structures.

3.

Threat to aquatic life a) Aquatic animals generally live in water with pH range of 6.5 to 8.4 b) Acid has the pH of 0 to 6.9. Therefore acid will decrease the pH of the water. This will not help the survival of fish and other aquatic life.

Damage to the soil nutrients of plants a) Acid rain dissolves minerals in the soil to form soluble compounds such as sodium salts, calcium salts and aluminium salts. b) Many of these salts are soluble in water. When these dissolved salts are washed away by acid rain, the plant will not have enough nutrients to survive.

REDUCING ACID RAIN


1.

Acid rain can be reduced by reducing all the sources of the acid. (refer slide 4) Sulphur dioxide can be removed directly by reacting them with calcium carbonate. CaCO3(s) + SO2(g) CaSO3(s) + CO2(g) The calcium sulphite reacts with the oxygen in the air to form calcium sulphate. 2CaSO3 (s) + O2(g) 2CaSO4(s)

2.

3.

Another chemical that can be used to react with sulphur dioxide is calcium oxide. CaO(s) + SO2(g) CaSO3(s) 2CaSO3(s) + O2 2CaSO4(s)

REDUCING THE ACIDITY IN THE SOIL, RIVERS


AND LAKES
1.

The acidity in these areas can be reduced with the following chemicals. a)Calcium oxide CaO(s) + 2H(aq) Ca(aq) + H2O(l) b) Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H(aq) Ca(aq) + 2H2O(l) c) Calcium carbonate CaCO3(s) + 2H(aq) Ca(aq) + H2O(l) +

CO2(g)

2. The chemical can be spread in the soil so that the acid will be neutralised.