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# Natural Science 1

HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter Temperature Absolute Zero What Is Heat? Quantity of Heat The Laws of Thermodynamics Entropy Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Expansion of Water Heat Transfer: Conduction Heat Transfer: Convection Heat Transfer: Radiation Emission of Radiant Energy Absorption of Radiant Energy

## The Kinetic Theory of Matter

Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in motion. Thermal Energy: The total energy (kinetic and potential) of the submicroscopic particles that make up a substance.

Temperature
Temperature is defined as the measure of hotness or coldness of an object (degrees Celsius, or degrees Fahrenheit, or kelvins). is related to the average translational kinetic energy per molecule in a substance.

Temperature
Thermometer is an instrument that measures temperature by comparing the expansion and contraction of a liquid as it gains or loses thermal energy. Infrared thermometer measures temperature by the radiation a substance emits.

Temperature
Temperature has no upper limit. Temperature of a substance is registered on a liquid-base thermometer when the substance has reached thermal equilibrium with the thermometer.

Temperature
Three different temperature scales differ in zero point and divisions:
Celsius scale freezing point of water: 0C boiling point of water: 100C division: 100 degree units

Temperature
Fahrenheit scale freezing point of water: 32 F boiling point of water: 212 F division: 180 degree units

Kelvin scale (used in scientific research) freezing point of water: 273 K boiling point of water: 373 K division: same-size increments as Celsius scale

There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both?

A. B. C. D.

## Temperature. Thermal energy. Both of the above. None of the above.

There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both?

A. B. C. D.

Temperature. Thermal energy. Both of the above. None of the above. Explanation: Average kinetic energy of molecules is the same, which means temperature is the same for both.

Absolute Zero
Absolute zero or zero K is the lowest limit of temperature at 273C where molecules have lost all available kinetic energy. A substance cannot get any colder.

What Is Heat?
Heat is defined as a flow of thermal energy due to a temperature difference. The direction of heat flow is from a higher-temperature substance to a lower-temperature substance.

## What Is Heat? CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the

A. B. C. D.

warm water to the red hot thumbtack. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. no heat flow. not enough information.

If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the

A. B. C. D.

warm water to the red hot thumbtack. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. no heat flow. not enough information.

Quantity of Heat
Heat is measured in units of energyjoules or calories. calorie is defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree. 4.18 joules = 1 calorie so 4.18 joules of heat will change that temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree.

Quantity of Heat
Energy rating of food and fuel is measured by energy released when they are metabolized. Kilocalorie:
Heat unit for labeling food One kilocalorie or Calorie (with a capital C) is the heat needed to change the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

## Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water

A. B. C. D.

decreases more. increases more. does not change. not enough information.

The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water

A. B. C. D.

decreases more. increases more. does not change. not enough information.

Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea?
0C. 2C. 4C. 8C.

A. B. C. D.

Quantity of Heat CHECK YOUR ANSWER You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea?
0C. 2C. 4C. 8C.

A. B. C. D.

## The Laws of Thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred. When thermal energy transfers as heat, it does so without net loss or gain.

## The Laws of Thermodynamics

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat never spontaneously flows from a lower-temperature substance to a highertemperature substance. Heat can be made to flow the opposite way only when work is done on the system or by adding energy from another source.

## The Laws of Thermodynamics

Third Law of Thermodynamics: No system can reach absolute zero.

## The Laws of Thermodynamics CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When work is done on a system, compressing air in a tire pump, for example, the temperature of the system

A. B. C. D.

## increases. decreases. remains unchanged. is no longer evident.

When work is done on a system, compressing air in a tire pump, for example, the temperature of the system

A. B. C. D.

increases. decreases. remains unchanged. is no longer evident. Explanation: In accord with the first law of thermodynamics, work input increases the energy of the system.

Entropy
Entropy
is a measure of the disorder of a system.
Whenever energy freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of transformation is toward a state of greater disorder and, therefore, toward one of greater entropy.

## The greater the disorder the higher the entropy.

Entropy
Second law of thermodynamics restatement: Natural systems tend to disperse from concentrated and organized-energy states toward diffuse and disorganized states. Energy tends to degrade and disperse with time. The total amount of entropy in any system tends to increase with time.

Your room gets messier each week. In this case, the entropy of your room is

A. B. C. D.

## increasing. decreasing. hanging steady. nonexistent.

Your room gets messier each week. In this case, the entropy of your room is

A. B. C. D.

increasing. decreasing. hanging steady. nonexistent. Comment: If your room became more organized each week, then entropy would decrease in proportion to the effort expended.

## Specific Heat Capacity

Specific heat capacity is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 unit mass of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
thermal inertia that indicates the resistance of a substance to a change in temperature. sometimes called specific heat.

## Which has the higher specific heat, water or land?

A. B. C. D.

Water. Land. Both of the above are the same. None of the above.

## Which has the higher specific heat, water or land?

A. B. C. D.

Water. Land. Both of the above are the same. None of the above. Explanation: A substance with small temperature changes for large heat changes has a high specific heat capacity. Water takes much longer to heat up in the sunshine than does land. This difference is a major influence on climate.

Thermal Expansion
Thermal Expansion When the temperature of a substance is increased, its particles jiggle faster and move farther apart. All forms of matter generally expand when heated and contract when cooled.

## Thermal Expansion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to

A. B. C. D.

sag. be taut. be close to the ground. allow ample space for birds.

When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to
A. B. C. D. sag. be taut. be close to the ground. allow ample space for birds. Explanation: Telephone lines are longer in a warmer summer and shorter in a cold winter. Hence, they sag more on hot summer days than in winter. If the lines are not strung with enough sag in summer, they might contract too much and snap during the winterespecially when carrying ice.

Expansion of Water
Expansion of Water When water becomes ice, it expands. Ice has open-structured crystals resulting from strong bonds at certain angles that increase its volume. This make ice less dense than water.

Expansion of Water
Water between 0C and 4C does not expand with temperature. As the temperature of 0 water rises, it contracts until it reaches 4C. Thereafter, it expands. Water is at its smallest volume and greatest density at 4C. When 0C water freezes to become ice, however, it has its largest volume and lowest density.

Expansion of Water
Volume changes for a 1-gram sample of water.

Expansion of Water CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first

A. B. C. D.

## expands. contracts. remains unchanged. not enough information.

Expansion of Water CHECK YOUR ANSWER When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first

A. B. C. D.

expands. contracts. remains unchanged. not enough information. Explanation: Water continues to contract until it reaches a temperature of 4C. With further increase in temperature beyond 4C, water then expands.

A. B. C. D.

## Expansion of Water CHECK YOUR ANSWER When a sample of 4C water is cooled, it

A. B. C. D.

expands. contracts. remains unchanged. not enough information. Explanation: Parts of the water will crystallize and occupy more space.

Heat Transfer
Processes of thermal energy transfer:

## Heat Transfer: Conduction

Conduction occurs predominately in solids where the molecules remain in relatively restricted locations.

## Heat Transfer: Conduction

Example: When one end of a solid is placed near a heat source, electrons and adjacent molecules gain kinetic energy and start to move faster and farther. They collide with neighboring molecules and transfer some of their kinetic energy to them. These molecules then interact with other neighboring molecules, and thermal energy is gradually transferred along the solid.

## Heat Transfer: Conduction

Good conductors:
composed of atoms with loose outer electrons known as poor insulators examplesall metals to varying degrees

Poor conductors:
delay the transfer of heat known as good insulators exampleswood, wool, straw, paper, cork, Styrofoam, liquid, gases, air, or materials with trapped air

## Heat Transfer: Conduction

No insulator can totally prevent heat from getting through it. An insulator reduces the rate at which heat penetrates.

## Heat Transfer: Conduction CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If you hold one end of a metal bar against a piece of ice, the end in your hand will soon become cold. Does cold flow from the ice to your hand?

A. B. C. D.

## Yes. In some cases, yes. No. In some cases, no.

If you hold one end of a metal bar against a piece of ice, the end in your hand will soon become cold. Does cold flow from the ice to your hand?

A. B. C. D.

Yes. In some cases, yes. No. In some cases, no. Explanation: Cold does not flow from the ice to your hand. Heat flows from your hand to the ice. The metal is cold to your touch, because you are transferring heat to the metal.

## Heat Transfer: Convection

Convection: occurs in liquids and gases involves the movement of warmer gases or liquids to cooler surroundings Two characteristics of convection: the ability of flowcarrying thermal energy with the fluid the ability of warm fluid to rise in cooler surroundings

Heat Transfer: Convection CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Although warm air rises, why are mountaintops cold and snow covered, while the valleys below are relatively warm and green?
A. B. C. D. Warm air cools when rising. There is a thick insulating blanket of air above valleys. Both of the above. None of the above.

Heat Transfer: Convection CHECK YOUR ANSWER Although warm air rises, why are mountaintops cold and snow covered, while the valleys below are relatively warm and green?
A. B. C. D. Warm air cools when rising. There is a thick insulating blanket of air above valleys. Both of the above. None of the above. Explanation: Earths atmosphere acts as a blanket, which for one important thing, keeps Earth from freezing at nighttime.

Radiation is the process by which thermal energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves.

A thermal energy source such as the Sun converts some of its energy into electromagnetic waves. These waves carry energy, which converts back into thermal energy when absorbed by a receiver. The energy source radiates energy, and a receiver absorbs it.

Wavelength of radiation is related to the frequency of vibration.
Low-frequency

## High-frequency vibrations short waves

Emission of Radiant Energy All substances at any temperature above absolute zero emit radiant energy. Average frequency (f) of radiant energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the emitter: f T

If a good absorber of radiant energy were a poor emitter, its temperature compared with its surroundings would be

A. B. C. D.

## lower. higher. unaffected. none of the above.

If a good absorber of radiant energy were a poor emitter, its temperature compared with its surroundings would be

A. B. C. D.

lower. higher. unaffected. none of the above. Explanation: If a good absorber were not also a good emitter, there would be a net absorption of radiant energy, and the temperature of a good absorber would remain higher than the temperature of the surroundings. Nature is not so!

The ability to absorb and radiate thermal energy is indicated by the color of the material. Good absorbers and good emitters are dark in color. Poor absorbers and poor emitters are reflective or light in color.

The surface of any material both absorbs and emits radiant energy. When a surface absorbs more energy than it emits, it is a net absorber, and temperature rises. When a surface emits more energy than it absorbs, it is a net emitter, and temperature falls.

Whether a surface is a net absorber or net emitter depends on whether its temperature is above or below that of its surroundings. A surface hotter than its surroundings will be a net emitter and will cool. A surface colder than its surroundings will be a net absorber and will warm.

## Which melts faster in sunshinedirty snow or clean snow?

A. B. C. D.

Dirty snow. Clean snow. Both of the above. None of the above.

## Which melts faster in sunshinedirty snow or clean snow?

A. B. C. D.

Dirty snow. Clean snow. Both of the above. None of the above. Explanation: Dirty snow absorbs more sunlight, whereas clean snow reflects more.