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Infection Control

Nature of microorganisms
Microorganisms Micro (tiny) Organisms (living thing) Can be seen under microscope

Pathogens- Disease-producing microorganisms Toxins- Pathogens destroy human tissue by using it as a food and give off waste products

Types of Microbes

Examples Of commonly caused infections strep throat, Urinary tract infection Abscesses Tuberculosis Bacterial meningitis syphilis

Examples commonly caused infections HIV/AIDS Hepatitis Fever blisters Common cold

Examples of commonly caused infections Ringworm athletes foot, Vaginal yeast infections ( candidiasis) Oral yeast infections (thrush)

Parasites / Insects
Examples commonly caused infections Scabies Pediculosis (lice)

Helminths (worms)
Example of commonly caused infections Pinworm infestation

Examples of commonly caused infections Malaria Amebic dysentery



Used to treat bacterial infections

Antimicrobial agents

Are used to treat fungal and parasitic infections

Antiviral agents

Are used to treat viral infections

Chain of Infection

Infectious Agent
Bacteria Virus Fungi Protozoa Parasite

People Environment Water

Portal of Exit
Excretions Secretions Droplets

Mode of transmission
Contact Droplet Airborne Vector borne

Portal of Entry
Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal tract Genitourinary tract Mucous membrane Skin

Susceptible Host
Cancer Patients Elderly Patients Surgical patients Burns Diabetes Mellitus

Causative agent: The pathogen (agent) that causes a disease Reservoir of the agent: The place where the pathogen lives and/ or reproduces Portal of Exit: the means by which the pathogen leaves the host

Portal of entry: the means by which the pathogen enters the new host Route of transmission: the way in which the pathogen travels from the portal of exit of one host to the portal of entry of another Susceptible host: a body that cannot resist the new pathogen and its disease-producing toxins

Transmission of bacteria

Direct contact: direct bodysurface-to-body-surface contact Indirect transmission: contact with a contaminated object Droplet transmission: small moisture particles containing pathogens move from one person to another

Oral-fecal transmission: the pathogen lives in an infected persons digestive tract and leaves the body in the feces. The feces ca contaminate food or water. Blood borne Transmission: to be transmitted from one person to another, blood or body fluids from an infected person must enter the bloodstream of a person who is not infected

Bloody fluids that are most likely to contain blood borne pathogens include:
Blood Semen Vaginal secretions Wound drainage Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Amniotic Fluid Breast Milk

Six condition that affects Bacterial Growth

Food: Bacteria grow well in the remains of food left in patients room. Moisture: Bacteria grow well in moist places.

Temperature: > 170F -High temperature kill most bacteria > 50 to 110 F Most disease-causing bacteria grow rapidly. > 98.2F Normal human body temperature. Bacteria thrive easily on and in the human body. > 32F Low temperatures do not kill bacteria but retard their activity and growth rate

Oxygen: > Aerobic bacteria require oxygen to live. > Anaerobic bacteria can survive without oxygen.

> Darkness favors the development of bacteria. They become very active and multiply rapidly. > Light is bacterias worst enemy. When exposed to direct sunlight, they become sluggish and die rapidly.

Dead and Living matter: > SaprophytesBacteria that live on dead matter or tissues.
> Parasites- Bacteria that live on living matter or tissue.

Signs of Infections

Fever A rapid pulse, a rapid respiratory rate, or changes in blood pressure Pain or difficulty breathing Redness, swelling, or pain Foul-smelling or cloudy urine Pain or difficulty urinating

Diarrhea or foul smelling feces Nausea and vomiting Lack of appetite Skin rashes Fatigue Increased confusion or disorientation Any unusual discharge or drainage from the body

Medical Asepsis

Creating an environment free of disease-causing organisms by preventing conditions that allow pathogens to live, multiply, and spread


Sanitization Practices associated with basic cleanliness, such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils and other surfaces with soap and water, and providing clean linens and clothing.

Antisepsis The use of mild chemicals to kill microbes or stop them from growing on skin

Disinfection The use of strong chemicals (bleach solution) to kill microbes on nonliving objects, such as bedpans, urinals, and over-bed tables. Sterilization The use of pressurized steam heat or very strong chemicals to kill microbes on equipment that will be placed in patients or residents body, such as surgical instruments.

Creating an aseptic environment Helps the client overcome a current infection or prevent the spread of that infection.

Protects the client against a second infection by the same microorganism called reinfection Protects the client against infection by a new or different type of microorganisms from a visitor or member of the health care team. This is called crossinfection

Protects the family and health- care team against infection by microorganisms passed from caregiver to client, client to caregiver. Diseases that can be passed from person to person are called communicable diseases Protects the client from infection from his own organisms. This is called self- inoculation.

Means uncontaminated. It refers to articles and places from which disease cannot be spread. Clean areas contain food, dishes, and clean equipment. No waste material is ever brought in to this area

This refers to areas that have come in contact with diseasecausing or carrying agents.

Hand Washing


Wash hands before and after each task and before and after direct client contact The water faucet is always considered dirty. This means it may harbor pathogens. Use paper towels to turn the faucet on and off. If your hands accidentally touch the inside of the sink, start over. Do the whole procedure again.

Take soap from a dispenser, if possible, rather than using bar soap. Bar soap leaves pools of soapy water in the soap dish, which is then considered contaminated. Wash your hands before you put on gloves for a procedure and again after you remove the gloves.

Disinfection and Sterilization

Disinfection: The process of destroying as many harmful organisms as possible. It is also means slowing down the growth and activity of organisms that cannot be destroyed. Sterilization: The process of killing all microorganisms, including spores, in a certain area.

Spores: are bacteria that have formed hard shells around themselves as a defense. These shells are like a protective suit of armor. Some can even live in boiling water. Sterilization is necessary if the article comes in direct contact with a wound, as in the case of surgical instruments or solutions used for cleaning a wound.

Wet-Heat sterilization: Removing pathogens from instruments decreases one cause of disease. Dry-Heat sterilization: The removal of pathogens from cloth used for dressings is one way to decrease the spread of pathogens.