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Chap4 - 1 Jaeger/Blalock

11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Chapter 4
Field-Effect Transistors
Microelectronic Circuit Design
Richard C. Jaeger
Travis N. Blalock
Chap4 - 2 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Chapter Goals
Describe operation of MOSFETs and JFETs.
Define FET characteristics in operation regions of cutoff, triode and
saturation.
Develop mathematical models for i-v characteristics of MOSFETs and
JFETs.
Introduce graphical representations for output and transfer
characteristic descriptions of electronic devices.
Define and contrast characteristics of enhancement-mode and
depletion-mode FETs.
Define symbols to represent FETs in circuit schematics.
Investigate circuits that bias transistors into different operating regions.
Learn basic structure and mask layout for MOS transistors and circuits.
Explore MOS device scaling
Chap4 - 3 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Chapter Goals (cont.)
Contrast 3 and 4 terminal device behavior.
Describe sources of capacitance in MOSFETs and JFETs.
Explore FET modeling in SPICE.
Chap4 - 4 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Types of Field-Effect Transistors
MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect
Transistor)
Primary component in high-density VLSI chips such as
memories and microprocessors
JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor)
Finds application especially in analog and RF circuit
design
Chap4 - 5 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Capacitor Structure
First electrode - Gate : Consists of
low-resistivity material such as
highly-doped polycrystalline
silicon, aluminum or tungsten

Second electrode - Substrate or
Body: n- or p-type semiconductor

Dielectric - Silicon dioxide: stable
high-quality electrical insulator
between gate and substrate.
Chap4 - 6 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Substrate Conditions for Different Biases
Accumulation
V
G
<< V
TN
Depletion
V
G
< V
TN
Inversion
V
G
> V
TN

Chap4 - 7 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Low-frequency C-V Characteristics for MOS
Capacitor on P-type Substrate
MOS capacitance is non-
linear function of voltage.
Total capacitance in any
region dictated by the
separation between capacitor
plates.
Total capacitance modeled as
series combination of fixed
oxide capacitance and
voltage-dependent depletion
layer capacitance.
Chap4 - 8 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Structure
4 device terminals:
Gate(G), Drain(D),
Source(S) and Body(B).
Source and drain
regions form pn
junctions with substrate.
v
SB
, v
DS
and v
GS
always
positive during normal
operation.
v
SB
must always reverse
bias the pn junctions
Chap4 - 9 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Qualitative I-V
Behavior
V
GS
<< V
TN
: Only small leakage
current flows.
V
GS
< V
TN
: Depletion region formed
under gate merges with source and
drain depletion regions. No current
flows between source and drain.
V
GS
> V
TN
: Channel formed between
source and drain. If v
DS
> 0, finite i
D

flows from drain to source.
i
B
= 0 and

i
G
= 0.
Chap4 - 10 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Triode Region
Characteristics
=
D
i


i
D
= K
n
'
W
L
v
GS
V
TN

v
DS
2
|
\


|
.
|
|
v
DS

for v
GS
V
TN
> v
DS
> 0
where K
n
= K
n
'
W
L
K
n
'
=
n
C
ox
"
A V
2
| |
C
ox
"
=
c
ox
T
ox
c
ox
= oxide permittivity
F/cm
| |
T
ox
= oxide thickness (cm)
Chap4 - 11 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Triode Region
Characteristics (cont.)
Output characteristics
appear to be linear.
FET behaves like a
gate-source voltage-
controlled resistor
between source and
drain with

R
on
=
1
K
n
'
W
L
V
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
Chap4 - 12 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Resistor
Example 1: Voltage-Controlled Attenuator

v
O
v
S
=
R
on
R
on
+R
=
1
1+K
n
RV
GG
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|


v
O
v
S
=
1
1+500
A
V
2
2000O
|
\

|
.
|
1.51
|
\

|
.
| V
=0.667
To maintain triode region operation,


0.667v
S
s(1.51)V or v
S
s0.750 V

v
DS
sv
GS
V
TN
or v
O
sv
GG
V
TN
If K
n
= 500A/V
2
, V
TN
= 1V, R = 2kO and
V
GG
= 1.5V, then,
Chap4 - 13 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Resistor
(contd.)
Example 2: Voltage-Controlled High-Pass Filter
Voltage Transfer function,

T s
( )
=
V
O
s
( )
V
S
s
( )
=
s
s+e
o
where, cut-off frequency

e
o
=
1
R
on
C
=
K
n
(V
GS
V
TN
)
C
If K
n
= 500A/V
2
, V
TN
= 1V, C = 0.02F
and V
GG
= 1.5V, then,


f
o
=
500
A
V
2
1.51
|
\

|
.
| V
2t(0.02F)
=1.99 kHz
To maintain triode region operation,


v
S
sV
GG
V
TN
=0.5 V
Chap4 - 14 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Saturation Region
If v
DS
increases above triode region limit,
the channel region disappears - also said to
be pinched-off.
Current saturates at a constant value,
independent of v
DS.

Saturation region operation mostly used for
analog amplification.
Chap4 - 15 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor: Saturation Region
(contd.)


i
D
=
K
n
'
2
W
L
v
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
for v
DS
>v
GS
V
TN

v
DSAT
=v
GS
V
TN
is called the saturation or
pinch-off voltage
Chap4 - 16 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transconductance of a MOS Device
Transconductance relates the change in drain current to a
change in gate-source voltage



Taking the derivative of the expression for the drain
current in the saturation region,

g
m
=
di
D
dv
GS
Q pt

g
m
=K
n
'
W
L
(V
GS
V
TN
)=
2I
D
V
GS
V
TN
Chap4 - 17 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Channel-Length Modulation
As v
DS
increases above

v
DSAT
, the

length of the depleted channel
beyond pinch-off point, AL,
increases and actual L decreases.
i
D
increases slightly with v
DS
instead of being constant.


i
D
=
K
n
'
2
W
L
v
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
1+v
DS
|
\

|
.
|
= channel length modulation
parameter
Chap4 - 18 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Depletion-Mode MOSFETS
NMOS transistors with
Ion implantation process is used to form a built-in n-type
channel in the device to connect source and drain by a
resistive channel
Non-zero drain current for v
GS
= 0; negative v
GS
required to
turn device off.

V
TN
s0
Chap4 - 19 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transfer Characteristics of MOSFETS
Plots drain current versus gate-source voltage for a fixed
drain-source voltage
Chap4 - 20 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Body Effect or Substrate Sensitivity
Non-zero v
SB
changes threshold
voltage, causing substrate
sensitivity modeled by


where
V
TO
= zero substrate bias for V
TN
(V)
= body-effect parameter ( )
2u
F
= surface potential parameter (V)

V
TN
=V
TO
+ v
SB
+2|
F
2|
F
|
\

|
.
|
V
Chap4 - 21 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Enhancement-Mode PMOS Transistors:
Structure
p-type source and drain regions
in n-type substrate.
v
GS
< 0 required to create p-type
inversion layer in channel
region
For current flow, v
GS
< v
TP
To maintain reverse bias on
source-substrate and drain-
substrate junctions, v
SB
< 0 and
v
DB
< 0
Positive bulk-source potential
causes V
TP
to become more
negative
Chap4 - 22 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Enhancement-Mode PMOS Transistors:
Output Characteristics
For , transistor is
off.
For more negative v
GS
, drain
current increases in
magnitude.
PMOS is in triode region for
small values of V
DS
and in
saturation for larger values.

V
GS
>V
TP
Chap4 - 23 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOSFET Circuit Symbols
(g) and (i) are the
most commonly
used symbols in
VLSI logic design.
MOS devices are
symmetric.
In NMOS, n
+

region at higher
voltage is the drain.
In PMOS p
+
region
at lower voltage is
the drain
Chap4 - 24 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Process-defining Factors
Minimum Feature Size F : Width of smallest line or space that can
be reliably transferred to wafer surface using a given generation of
lithographic manufacturing tools
Alignment Tolerance T: Maximum misalignment that can occur
between two mask levels during fabrication
Chap4 - 25 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Mask Sequence for a Polysilicon-Gate
Transistor
Mask 1: Defines active area or
thin oxide region of transistor
Mask 2: Defines polysilicon gate
of transistor, aligns to mask 1
Mask 3: Delineates the contact
window, aligns to mask 2.
Mask 4: Delineates the metal
pattern, aligns to mask 3.
Channel region of transistor
formed by intersection of first
two mask layers. Source and
Drain regions formed wherever
mask 1 is not covered by mask 2
n
+
n
+
n
+
n
+
n
+
n
+
(a) (b)
(c)
(d)
Chap4 - 26 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Basic Ground Rules for Layout
F = 2A
T = F/2 = A
A could be 1, 0.5,
0.25 m, etc.
Polysilicon Gate
Aluminum
Interconnection
Contact
Active Region
Oxide
Metal
n
+
2 A 2 A 2 A 1 A 1 A
12 A
A
A
A
2A
A
10 A
B
B'
W
L
Polysilicon Below
Metal
n
+
Oxide
Metal
n
+
Chap4 - 27 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Internal Capacitances in Electronic
Devices
Limit high-frequency performance of the electronic device
Limit switching speed of circuits in logic applications
Limit frequency at which useful amplification can be
obtained in amplifiers.
MOSFET capacitances depend on operation region and are
non-linear functions of voltages at device terminals.
Chap4 - 28 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Triode
Region
C
ox
= Gate-channel
capacitance per unit
area(F/m
2
).
C
GC
= Total gate channel
capacitance.
C
GS
= Gate-source
capacitance.
C
GD
= Gate-drain
capacitance.
C
GSO
and C
GDO
= overlap
capacitances (F/m).

C
GS
=
C
GC
2
+C
GSO
W=C
ox
"
WL
2
+C
GSO
W

C
GD
=
C
GC
2
+C
GSO
W=C
ox
"
WL
2
+C
GSO
W
Chap4 - 29 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Triode
Region (cont.)
C
SB
= Source-bulk capacitance.
C
DB
= Drain-bulk capacitance.
A
S
and A
D
= junction bottom area
capacitance of the source and
drain regions.
P
S
and P
D
= perimeter of the
source and drain junction
regions.

C
SB
=C
J
A
S
+C
JSW
P
S

C
DB
=C
J
A
D
+C
JSW
P
D
Chap4 - 30 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor Capacitances:
Saturation Region
Drain no longer connected to channel

C
GS
=
2
3
C
GC
+C
GSO
W
C
GD
=C
GDO
W
Chap4 - 31 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Cutoff
Region
Conducting channel
region completely
gone.


C
GB
= Gate-bulk
capacitance
C
GBO
= gate-bulk
capacitance per unit
width.

C
GS
=C
GSO
W
C
GD
=C
GDO
W
C
GB
=C
GBO
W
Chap4 - 32 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
SPICE Model for NMOS Transistor
Typical default values used by SPICE:
K
n
or K
p
: KP = 20 A/V
2

: GAMMA= 0 : LAMBDA = 0
V
TO
= 1 V or V
TO
= -1 V

n
or
p
UO = 600 cm
2
/V-s
2u
F
: PHI = 0.6 V
C
GDO
= C
GSO
= C
GBO
= C
JSW
= 0
T
ox
: TOX = 100 nm
Chap4 - 33 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis Approach
Assume a region of operation (generally the saturation
region)
Use circuit analysis to find V
GS

Use V
GS
to calculate I
D
, and I
D
to find V
DS

Check validity of operation region assumptions
Change assumptions and analyze again if required.

NOTE: An enhancement-mode device with V
DS
= V
GS
is
always in saturation
Chap4 - 34 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Four-Resistor and Two-Resistor Biasing
Provide excellent bias for transistors in discrete circuits.
Stabilize bias point with respect to device parameter and
temperature variations using negative feedback.
Use single voltage source to supply both gate-bias voltage
and drain current.
Generally used to bias transistors in saturation region.
Two-resistor biasing uses fewer components than four-
resistor biasing
Chap4 - 35 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 1
(Four-Resistor Biasing)
Problem: Find Q-pt (I
D
, V
DS
)
Approach: Assume operating
region, find Q-point, check to see if
result is consistent with operation
region
Assumption: Transistor is saturated, I
G
= I
B
= 0
Analysis: First, simplify circuit, split
V
DD
into two equal-valued sources and
apply Thvenin transformation to find
V
EQ
and R
EQ
for gate-bias voltage
Chap4 - 36 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 1
(Four-Resistor Biasing - cont.)

V
EQ
=V
GS
+I
D
R
S
Since I
G
= 0,

V
EQ
=V
GS
+
K
n
R
S
2
V
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
4=V
GS
+
2510
6
|
\


|
.
|
|
3.910
4
|
\


|
.
|
|
2
V
GS
1
|
\

|
.
|
2


V
GS
2
+0.05V
GS
7.21=0
V
GS
=2.71V,+2.66V
Since V
GS
< V
TN
for V
GS
= -2.71 V
and MOSFET will be cut-off,

V
GS
=+2.66 V and I
D
= 34.4 A
Also, V
DD
= I
D
(R
D
+R
S
)+V
DS
and V
DS
=6.08 V
V
DS
> V
GS
-V
TN
. Hence
saturation region assumption is
correct.
Q-pt: (34.4 A, 6.08 V) with
V
GS
= 2.66 V
Chap4 - 37 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 2
(Four-Resistor Biasing)
Estimate value of I
D
and use it
to find V
GS
and V
SB

Use V
SB
to calculate V
TN

Find I
D
using above 2 steps
If I
D
is not same as original I
D

estimate, start again.
Analysis with body effect using
same assumptions as in example 1:

V
GS
=V
EQ
I
D
R
S
=622000I
D

V
SB
=I
D
R
S
=22000I
D

V
TN
=V
TO
+( V
SB
+2|
F
2|
F
)
V
TN
=1+0.5( V
SB
+0.6 0.6)

I
D
'=
2510
6
|
\

|
.
|
2
V
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
Iterative solution can be found by
following steps:
Chap4 - 38 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 2
(Four-Resistor Biasing - cont.)
The iteration sequence leads to I
D
= 88.0 A


V
DS
=V
DD
I
D
(R
D
+R
S
)=1040000I
D
=6.48V
V
DS
>V
GS
-V
TN
. Hence saturation region assumption is correct.
Q-pt: (88.0 A, 6.48 V)
Chap4 - 39 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 3
(Two-Resistor Biasing)
Assumption: I
G
= I
B
= 0, transistor is
saturated (since V
DS
=V
GS
)
Analysis:

V
DS
=V
DD
I
D
R
D


V
GS
=V
DD

K
n
R
D
2
V
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
V
GS
= 3.3
2.610
4
|
\

|
.
|
10
4
|
\

|
.
|
2
V
GS
1
|
\

|
.
|
2
V
GS
=0.769V, +2.00V
Since V
GS
<V
TN
for V
GS
= -0.769 V
and the MOSFET will be cut-off,
V
DS
>V
GS
-V
TN
. Hence saturation
region assumption is correct.
Q-pt: (130 A, 2.00 V)

V
GS
= 2.00 V and I
D
=130 A
Chap4 - 40 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 4 ( Biasing in
Triode Region)
Assumption: I
G
= I
B
= 0, transistor
is saturated (since V
DS
= V
GS
)
Analysis: V
GS
= V
DD
= 4 V


I
D
=
250
2
A
V
2
(41)
2
=1.13mA

V
DD
= I
D
(R
D
+R
S
)+V
DS
4=1600I
D
+V
DS
V
DS
=2.19 V
Also
But V
DS
< V
GS
-V
TN
. Hence,
saturation region assumption is
incorrect. Try again using the triode
region equation:


4V
DS
=1600
250
2
A
V
2
(41
V
DS
2
)V
DS
V
DS
=2.3 V and I
D
=1.06 mA
V
DS
<V
GS
-V
TN
, transistor is in triode
region
Q-pt: (1.06 mA, 2.3 V)
Chap4 - 41 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bias Analysis: Example 5 (Two-Resistor
biasing for PMOS Transistor)
Assumption: I
G
= I
B
= 0, transistor
is saturated (since V
DS
=

V
GS
)
Analysis:


V
GS
+(470kO)I
G
+V
DS
=0
Also


15V(220kO)I
D
+V
DS
=0
15V(220kO)
50
2
A
V
2
V
GS
+2
|
\

|
.
|
2
+V
GS
=0
V
GS
=0.369V, 3.45V
Since V
GS
= -0.369 V is less than V
TP
= -2V,
V
GS
= -3.45 V
I
D
= 52.5 A and V
GS
= -3.45 V
Hence saturation assumption is correct.
Q-pt: (52.5 A, -3.45 V)

V
DS
> V
GS
V
TP
Chap4 - 42 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOSFET as a Current Source
Ideal current source
gives fixed output
current regardless of
voltage across it.
MOSFET behaves as as
an ideal current source if
biased in the pinch-off
region (output current
depends on gate-source
terminal voltage).
Chap4 - 43 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Current Mirror
Assumption: M
1
and M
2

have identical V
TN
, K
n
,
and W/L and are in
saturation.


I
REF
=
K
n
2
W
L
V
GS1
V
TN
( )
2
1+V
DS1
|
\

|
.
|
I
O
=
K
n
2
W
L
V
GS2
V
TN
( )
2
1+V
DS2
|
\

|
.
|
But V
GS2
=V
GS1
and
I
O
= I
REF
1+V
DS2
( )
1+V
DS1
( )
~ I
REF
Thus, the output current precisely
mirrors the reference current if
V
DS1
= V
DS2
.
Chap4 - 44 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
NMOS Current Mirror: Example
Given data: I
REF
= 50 A, V
O
= 12 V, V
TN
= 1 V, K
n
= 150 A/V
2
, =
0.0133 V
-1
Determine: V
GS
, V
DS1
, I
O
Analysis:

V
DS1
=V
GS1
=V
TN
+
2I
REF
K
n
(1+V
DS1
)
Using trial-and-error,


V
DS1
=1V+
2(50A)
150
A
V
2
(1+
0.0133
V
V
DS1
)
Hence, V
DS1
= 1.81 V. Also, V
DS2
= 12 V


I
O
=(50A)
1+
0.0133
V
(12V)
|
\


|
.
|
|
1+
0.0133
V
(1.81V)
|
\


|
.
|
|
=56.6 A
Chap4 - 45 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Current Mirror Ratio

K
n1
= K
n
'
W
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
1
=2K
n
'
K
n2
= K
n
'
W
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
2
=10K
n
'


I
O
= I
REF
W/L
( )
2
W/L
( )
1
1+V
DS2
( )
1+V
DS1
( )
=5I
REF
1+V
DS2
( )
1+V
DS1
( )


I
O
~5I
REF
Thus, the ratio between I
O
and I
REF

can be modified by changing the
W/L ratios of the current mirror
transistors (ignoring differences due
to V
DS
mismatch)
Chap4 - 46 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Current Mirror Output Resistance
Output current changes with v
DS
due to channel length
modulation.

Output resistance is given by


In the current mirror, v
O
= v
DS2


R
o
=
ci
O
cv
O
Q pt
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
1


i
O
=
K
n
2
W
L
v
GS2
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
2
1+v
O
|
\

|
.
|
R
o
=
I
O
1+I
O
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1
=
1+I
O
I
O
~
1
I
O
Chap4 - 47 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Current Mirror Layout
Two possible layouts
for a current mirror
Chap4 - 48 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Design of Multiple Current Mirrors:
Example


I
D2
= I
REF
W/L
( )
2
W/L
( )
1
=50 A
I
D3
= I
REF
W/L
( )
3
W/L
( )
1
=125 A
I
D5
= I
REF
W/L
( )
5
W/L
( )
4
=25 A
Choose R to set I
REF
= 25 A

R=
10+V
GSP
V
GSN
I
REF
Chap4 - 49 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Design of Multiple Current Mirrors
(cont).


R=
101.71+1.45
25
V
A
=274kO


V
GSP
=V
TP

2I
D
K
p
=1.71V and V
GSN
=V
TN
+
2I
D
K
n
=1.45V
R can be replaced by transistor M
6
for better
integration. We know that V
GS6
= -6.84 V and I
D

= 25 A and M
6
is in saturation

I
D
=
K
p
'
2
W
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
V
GS
V
TP
( )
2
and
W
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
=
1
13.6
Chap4 - 50 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Transistor Scaling
Drain Current:



Gate Capacitance and Circuit Delay:




where t is the circuit delay in a logic circuit.

K
n
*
=
n
c
ox
T
ox
/o
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
W/o
L/o
|
\


|
.
|
|
=o
n
c
ox
T
ox
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
W
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
=oK
n
i
D
*
=
n
c
ox
T
ox
/o
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
W/o
L/o
|
\


|
.
|
|
=
v
GS
o

v
TN
o

v
DS
2o
|
\


|
.
|
|
v
DS
o
=
i
D
o

C
GC
*
=(C
ox
"
)
*
W
*
L
*
=
c
ox
T
ox
/o
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
W/o
L/o
|
\


|
.
|
|
=
C
GC
o
t
*
=C
GC
*
AV
*
i
D
*
=
C
GC
o
AV/o
i
D
/o
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
=
t
o
Chap4 - 51 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Transistor Scaling (cont.)
Circuit and Power Densities:



Power-Delay Product:

Cutoff Frequency:


f
T
improves with square of channel length reduction

P
*
=V
DD
*
i
D
*
=
V
DD
o
i
D
o
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
=
P
o
2
P
*
A
*
=
P
*
W
*
L
*
=
P/o
2
(W/o)(L/o)
=
P
WL
=
P
A

PDP
*
=P
*
t
*
=
P
o
2
t
o
|
\


|
.
|
|
=
PDP
o
3

f
T
=
1
2t
g
m
C
GC
=
1
2t

n
L
2
V
GS
V
TN
|
\

|
.
|
Chap4 - 52 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Transistor Scaling (cont.)
High Field Limitations:
High electric fields arise if technology is scaled down
with supply voltage constant.
Cause reduction in mobility of the MOS transistors,
breakdown of the linear relationship between mobility
and electric field, and carrier velocity saturation.
Ultimately results in reduced long-term reliability and
breakdown of gate oxide or pn junction.
Drain current in saturation region is linearized to

i
D
=
C
ox
"
W
2
(v
GS
v
TN
)v
SAT
where, v
SAT
is the carrier
saturation velocity
Chap4 - 53 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
MOS Transistor Scaling (cont.)
Sub-threshold Conduction:
I
D
decreases exponentially for
V
GS
< V
TN.
Reciprocal of the slope in
mV/decade gives the turn off
rate for the MOSFET.
V
TN
should be reduced if
dimensions are scaled down,
but curve in sub-threshold
region shifts horizontally
instead of scaling with V
TN
.
Chap4 - 54 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET)
Structure

Much lower input current and
much higher input impedance than
the BJT.
In triode region, JFET is a voltage-
controlled resistor,

= resistivity of channel
L = channel length
W = channel width between pn
junction depletion regions
t = channel depth
Inherently a depletion-mode device
n-type semiconductor block
houses the channel region in n-
channel JFET.
Two pn junctions form the gate.
Current enters channel at the drain
and exits at source.

R
CH
=

t
L
W
Chap4 - 55 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
JFET with Gate-Source Bias
v
GS
= 0, gate isolated from channel.
V
P
< v
GS
<0, W < W, and channel
resistance increases; gate-source
junction is reverse-biased, i
G
almost 0.
v
GS
= V
P
< 0, channel region pinched-
off, channel resistance is infinite.
Chap4 - 56 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
JFET Channel with Drain-Source Bias
With constant v
GS
, depletion region
near drain increases with v
DS
.
At v
DSP
= v
GS
- V
P
, channel is totally
pinched-off; i
D
is saturated.
JFET also suffers from channel-
length modulation like MOSFET at
larger values of v
DS
.
Chap4 - 57 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
N-Channel JFET
i-v Characteristics
Transfer Characteristics
Output Characteristics
Chap4 - 58 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
N-Channel JFET
i-v Characteristics (cont.)
For all regions :
In cutoff region:
In Triode region:



In pinch-off region:


i
G
=0 for v
GS
s0

i
D
=0 for v
GS
sV
P
V
P
<0
|
\

|
.
|

i
D
=
2I
DSS
V
P
2
v
GS
V
P

v
DS
2
|
\


|
.
|
|
2
v
DS
for v
GS
>V
P
and v
GS
V
P
>V
DS
>0

i
D
=I
DSS
1
v
GS
V
P
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
2
1+v
DS
|
\

|
.
| for v
DS
>v
GS
V
P
>0
Chap4 - 59 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
P-Channel JFET
Polarities of n- and p-type regions of the n-channel
JFET are reversed to get the p-channel JFET.
Channel current direction and operating bias voltages
are also reversed.
Chap4 - 60 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
JFET Circuit Symbols
JFET structures are symmetric like MOSFETs.
Source and drain determined by circuit voltages.
Chap4 - 61 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
JFET Capacitances and SPICE Modeling
C
GD
and C
GS
are determined by depletion-
layer capacitances of reverse-biased pn
junctions forming gate and are bias
dependent.
Typical default values used by SPICE:
V
p
= -2 V
= C
GD
= C
GD
= 0
Transconductance parameter BETA
BETA = I
DSS
/V
P
2
= 100 A/V
2
Chap4 - 62 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Biasing JFET and Depletion-Mode
MOSFET: Example
Assumptions: JFET is pinched-off, gate-channel junction is reverse-biased,
reverse leakage current of gate, I
G
= 0
N-channel JFET Depletion-mode MOSFET
Chap4 - 63 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Biasing JFET and Depletion-Mode
MOSFET: Example (cont.)
Analysis:


Since I
S
=I
D
, V
GS
=I
D
R
S
V
GS
=I
DSS
R
S
1
V
GS
V
P
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
2
= 510
3
A
|
\

|
.
|
1000O
( )
1
V
GS
5V
|
\


|
.
|
|
2
V
GS
=1.91V, 13.1V
Since V
GS
= -13.1 V is less than V
P
= -5 V, V
GS
= -1.91 V and, I
D
= I
S
=
1.91 mA. Also,


V
DS
=V
DD
I
D
(R
D
+R
S
)=12(1.91mA)(3kO)=6.27V
V
DS
>V
GS
-V
P
. Hence pinch-off region assumption is correct and gate-
source junction is reverse-biased by 1.91V.
Q-pt: (1.91 mA, 6.27 V)
Chap4 - 64 Jaeger/Blalock
11/15/03
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
End of Chapter 4