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Jaeger/Blalock

3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Chapter 18
Feedback, Stability and Oscillators
Microelectronic Circuit Design
Richard C. Jaeger
Travis N. Blalock
Chap 18 - 1
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Chapter Goals
Review concepts of negative and positive feedback.
Develop two-port approach to analysis of negative feedback amplifiers.
Understand topologies and characteristics of series-shunt, shunt-shunt, shunt-
series and series-series feedback configurations.
Discuss common errors that occur in applying two-port feedback theory.
Discuss effects of feedback on frequency response and feedback amplifier
stability and interpret stability in in terms of Nyquist and Bode plots.
Use SPICE ac and transfer function analyses on feedback amplifiers.
Determine loop-gain of closed-loop amplifiers using SPICE simulation or
measurement.
Discuss Barkhausen criteria for oscillation and amplitude stabilization
Understand basic RC, LC and crystal oscillator circuits and present LCR model
of quartz crystal.
Chap 18 - 2
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Feedback Effects
Gain Stability: Feedback reduces sensitivity of gain to variations in
values of transistor parameters and circuit elements.

Input and Output Impedances: Feedback can increase or decrease input
and output resistances of an amplifier.

Bandwidth: Bandwidth of amplifier can be extended using feedback.

Nonlinear Distortion: Feedback reduces effects of nonlinear
distortion.eg: removal of dead zone in class-B amplifiers
Chap 18 - 3
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Classic Feedback Systems
A(s) = transfer function of open-
loop amplifier or open-loop gain.
|(s) = transfer function of
feedback network.

V
d
(s)=V
i
(s)V
f
(s)
V
o
(s)=V
d
(s)A(s)
V
f
(s)=V
o
(s)|(s)
A
v
s
( )
=
V
o
(s)
V
i
(s)
=
A s
( )
1+A s
( )
| s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+T s
( )
T(s) = A| = loop gain

For negative feedback: T(s) > 0
For positive feedback: T(s) < 0
Chap 18 - 4
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Voltage Amplifiers: Series-Shunt
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)

1
A
v
=
11
A
h
i
1
+
12
A
h
v
2

1
F
v
=
11
F
h
i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
2
A
i
=
21
A
h
i
1
+
22
A
h
v
2

2
F
i
=
21
F
h
i
1
+
22
F
h
v
2

ij
T
h
=
ij
A
h
+
ij
F
h
and
21
A
h
>>
21
F
h
,
12
F
h
>>
12
A
h


v
1
=
11
T
h
i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
v
i
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
i
2
=
21
A
h
i
1
+
22
T
h
v
2
0=
21
A
h
i
1
+(
22
T
h
+G
L
)v
2


A
v
=
v
2
v
i
=
21
A
h
21
A
h 12
F
h
(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
=
A
1+A|
A=
21
A
h
(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
|=
12
F
h
Chap 18 - 5
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Voltage Amplifiers: Series-Shunt
Feedback (Two-Port Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required h-parameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Two-port representation of the
amplifier is as shown

11
F
h

22
F
h
Chap 18 - 6
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Voltage Amplifiers: Series-Shunt
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)


v
i
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h
-
21
A
h
(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
i
1
R
in
=
v
i
i
1
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(1+A|)
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)
Series feedback at a port increases
input resistance at that port.
For output resistance:


v
1
=R
I
i
1
v
2
=v
x
i
2
=i
x
=G
L
v
2
i
x
=
21
A
h
i
1
+(
22
T
h
+G
L
)v
x
0=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h
v
x

R
out
=
v
x
i
x
=
1
22
T
h
+G
L
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+A|
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
Shunt feedback at a port reduces
resistance at that port.
Chap 18 - 7
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Voltage Amplifiers
Series-Shunt Feedback (Example)
Problem: Find A, |, closed-loop
gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: R
1
= 10 kO, R
2
= 91 kO,
R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 1 kO, A = 10
4
.
Analysis:

11
F
h
=
v
1
i
1
v
2
= 0
=R
1
R
2
=9.01 kO
22
F
h
=
i
2
v
2
i
1
= 0
=
1
R
1
+R
2
=
1
101 kO
12
F
h
=
v
1
v
2
i
1
= 0
=
R
1
R
1
+R
2
=0.0990
Chap 18 - 8
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Voltage Amplifiers
Series-Shunt Feedback (Example cont.)


A=
v
o
v
i
=
25kO
1kO+25kO+9.01kO
(10
4
)
1.96kO
1.96kO+1.00kO
=4730
A
v
=
A
1+A|
=
4730
1+4730(0.0990)
=10.1
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)=16.4MO
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
=1.41O
Chap 18 - 9
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transresistance Amplifiers: Shunt-Shunt
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)

1
A
i
=
11
A
y v
1
+
12
A
y v
2

1
F
i
=
11
F
y v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
2
A
i
=
21
A
y v
1
+
22
A
y v
2

2
F
i
=
21
F
y v
1
+
22
F
y v
2

ij
T
y =
ij
A
y +
ij
F
y and
21
A
y >>
21
F
y ,
12
F
y >>
12
A
y


i
1
=
11
T
y v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
i
2
=
21
A
y v
1
+
22
T
y v
2
0=
21
A
y v
1
+(
22
T
y +G
L
)v
2


A
tr
=
v
2
i
i
=
21
A
y
21
A
y
12
F
y (G
I
+
11
T
y )(
22
T
y +G
L
)
=
A
1+A|
A=
21
A
y
(G
I
+
11
T
y )(
22
T
y +G
L
)
|=
12
F
y
Chap 18 - 10
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transresistance Amplifiers: Shunt-Shunt
Feedback (Two-Port Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required y-parameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Two-port representation of the
amplifier is as shown.

11
F
y

22
F
y
Chap 18 - 11
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transresistance Amplifiers: Shunt-Shunt
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)


i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y
-
21
A
y
(
22
T
y +G
L
)
v
1
R
in
=
v
1
i
i
=
1
G
I
+
11
T
h
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
(1+A|)
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)
Shunt feedback at a port reduces resistance
at that port.
For output resistance:


i
1
=G
I
v
1
i
2
=i
x
=G
L
v
2
i
x
=
21
A
y v
1
+(
22
T
y +G
L
)v
x
0=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y v
x

R
out
=
v
x
i
x
=
1
22
T
y +G
L
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+A|
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
Resistance at output port is reduced due to
shunt feedback.
Chap 18 - 12
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transresistance Amplifiers
Shunt-Shunt Feedback (Example)
Problem: Find A, |, closed-loop
gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: V
A
= 50 V, |
F
= 150
Analysis: For the dc equivalent
circuit,


11
F
y =
i
1
v
1
v
2
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
-5
S
22
F
y =
i
2
v
2
i
2
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
-5
S
12
F
y =
i
1
v
2
v
1
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
-5
S


I
C
=
V
CC
V
BE
R
C
+
R
C
+R
F
|
F
=0.970 mA
V
CE
=V
CC
(I
C
+I
B
)R
C
=1.35 V
g
m
=40(0.977mA)=39.1 mS
r
t
=
1
g
m
=3.84 kO r
o
=
50V +1.35V
0.977mA
=52.6 kO
Chap 18 - 13
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transresistance Amplifiers
Shunt-Shunt Feedback (Example cont.)


A=
v
o
i
i
=
4.76kO
4.76kO+3.84kO
(150)1.41kO52.6kO
|
\

|
.
| =114 kO
A
tr
=
A
1+A|
=
114kO
1114kO(0.01mS)
=53.3 kO
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)= R
I
R
F
r
t
|
\

|
.
|
(1+A|)=995 O
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
=
R
L
R
F
R
C
r
o
1+A|
=640 O

i
b
=i
i
4.76kO
4.76kO+r
t
v
o
=|
o
i
b
(1.41kOr
o
)
Chap 18 - 14
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Current Amplifiers: Shunt-Series
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)

i
1
=
1
A
i
+
1
F
i
v
2
=
2
A
v
+
2
F
v

ij
T
g =
ij
A
g +
ij
F
g and
21
A
g >>
21
F
g ,
12
F
g >>
12
A
g


i
1
=
11
T
g v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
v
2
=
21
A
g v
1
+
22
T
g i
2
0=
21
A
g v
1
+(
22
T
g +R
L
)i
2


A
i
=
i
2
i
i
=
21
A
g
21
A
g
12
F
g (G
I
+
11
T
g )(
22
T
g +R
L
)
=
A
1+A|
A=
21
A
g
(G
I
+
11
T
g )(
22
T
g +R
L
)
|=
12
F
g
Chap 18 - 15
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Current Amplifiers: Shunt-Series
Feedback (Two-Port Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required g-parameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Two-port representation of the
amplifier is as shown

11
F
g

22
F
g
Chap 18 - 16
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Current Amplifiers: Shunt-Series
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)


i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g
-
21
A
g
(
22
T
g +R
L
)
v
1
R
in
=
v
1
i
i
=
1
G
I
+
11
T
g
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
(1+A|)
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)
Shunt feedback at a port decreases
resistance at that port.
For output resistance:

R
out
=
v
x
i
2
=
22
T
g +R
L
|
\

|
.
| 1+A|
|
\

|
.
|
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
|
\

|
.
|
Series feedback at output port increases
resistance at that port.


i
1
=G
I
v
1
v
2
=v
x
=R
L
i
2
v
x
=
21
A
g v
1
+(
22
T
g +R
L
)i
2
0=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
Chap 18 - 17
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transconductance Amplifiers: Series-Series
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)

v
1
=
1
A
v
+
1
F
v
v
2
=
2
A
v
+
2
F
v

ij
T
z =
ij
A
z +
ij
F
z and
21
A
z >>
21
F
z ,
12
F
z >>
12
A
z


v
1
=
11
T
z i
1
+
12
T
z i
2
v
i
=(R
S
+
11
T
z )i
1
+
12
F
z i
2
v
2
=
21
T
z i
1
+
22
T
z i
2
0=
21
T
z i
1
+(
22
T
z +R
L
)i
2


A
tc
=
i
2
v
i
=
21
A
z
21
A
z
12
F
z (R
I
+
11
T
z )(
22
T
z +R
L
)
=
A
1+A|
A=
21
A
z
(R
I
+
11
T
z )(
22
T
z +R
L
)
|=z
12
F
Chap 18 - 18
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Transconductance Amplifiers: Series-Series
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)

R
out
=
v
x
i
2
=
22
T
z +R
L
|
\

|
.
| 1+A|
|
\

|
.
|
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A|
|
\

|
.
|

R
in
=
v
i
i
1
=
11
T
z +R
I
|
\

|
.
| 1+A|
|
\

|
.
|
R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A|
|
\

|
.
|
Series feedback at input and output
port increases resistance at both ports.
Chap 18 - 19

Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required y-parameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Two-port representation of the
amplifier is as shown.

11
F
z

22
F
z
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Erroneous Application of Two-Port
Feedback Theory
Problem: Find A, |, closed-loop gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: V
REF
= 5 V, |
o
= 100, V
A
= 50 V, A
o
= 10,000, R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 0
Analysis: The circuit is redrawn to identify amplifier and feedback networks and
appropriate 2-port parameters of feedback network are found.
This case seems to
use series-series
feedback.
i
e
is sampled by feedback network instead of i
o
. This assumption is made since
o
o
is approximately 1.
Chap 18 - 20
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Erroneous Application of Two-Port
Feedback Theory (cont.)
z-parameters are found
as shown. From A-
circuit, I
E
= 1 mA


r
t
~
1000(0.025V)
1mA
=2.5kO r
o
~
50V
1mA
=50kO


i
o
=v
i
R
id
R
id
+R
A
o
|
o
r
t
+(|
o
+1)R
A
tc
=
i
o
v
i
=
A
1+A|
=
1.64S
1+1.64S(5kO)
=0.200 mS

R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A|
|
\

|
.
| =(R
id
+R)1+A|
|
\

|
.
| =246 MO R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A|
|
\

|
.
| =27.7 GO
Chap 18 - 21
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Erroneous Application of Two-Port
Feedback Theory (cont.)
SPICE analyses confirm results for A
tc
and R
in
,
but results for R
out
are in error. For A
tc
and R
in
,
amplifier can be properly modeled as a series-
shunt feedback amplifier, as collector of Q
1
can
be directly connected to ground for calculations
and a valid 2-port representation exists as shown.
Results for R
out
are in error because
output of op amp is referenced to ground,
base current of BJT is lost from output
port and feedback loop and R
out
is limited
to

3 and 4 are not valid terminals as current
entering 3 is not same as that exiting 4.
Amplifier cant be reduced to a 2-port.

R
out
s|
o
r
o
Chap 18 - 22
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Analysis of Shunt-Series Feedback Pair
Problem: Find A, |, closed-loop gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: |
o
= 100, V
A
= 100 V, Q-point for Q
1
:(0.66 mA, 2.3 V), Q-point for
Q
2
:(1.6 mA, 7.5 V)
Analysis: The circuit is redrawn to identify amplifier and feedback networks and
appropriate 2-port parameters of feedback network are found.
Shunt-shunt transresistance configuration is used.
Chap 18 - 23
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Analysis of Shunt-Series Feedback Pair
(cont.)
Small signal parameters are found
from given Q-points.
For Q
1
, r
t
= 3.79 kO, r
o
= 155 kO.
For Q
2
, r
t
= 1.56 kO, r
o
= 64.8 kO.

v
th
=i
i
R
B
R
B
+r
t1
|
o1
(r
o1
R
C
)
v
th
=4.9410
5
i
i
R
th
=10kOr
o1
=8.88kO
v
2
=v
th
=
(|
o2
+1)(0.901kO)
8.88kO+r
t2
+(|
o2
+1)(0.901kO)
Chap 18 - 24
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Analysis of Shunt-Series Feedback Pair
(cont.)

A=
v
2
i
i
=4.4310
5
O

|=
12
F
y
=
1
9100
S


A
tr
=
A
1+A|
=8910 O
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A|)
=
R
B
r
t1
(1+A|)
=42.5 O
R
out
=
out
A
R
(1+A|)
=1.86 O
Closed-loop current gain is given by:

A
i
=
i
o
i
i
=
o
o
i
e
i
i
=
o
o
v
2
901O
i
i
=
o
o
901O
A
tr
=9.79
Chap 18 - 25
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Direct Calculation of Loop Gain
Original input source is set to zero.
Test source is inserted at the point
where feedback loop is broken.

v
r
=|v
o
=|A(0v
x
)=|Av
x
T =
A
|
=
v
r
v
x
Example:



is added for proper
termination of feedback loop.

R
3
=R
2
R
1

v
r
=v
o
R
1
R
1
+R
2
=
R
1
R
1
+R
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
Av
x
R
id
R
id
+R
3
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
T =
v
r
v
x
= A
R
1
R
1
+R
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
R
id
R
id
+R
3
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
Chap 18 - 26
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Calculation of Loop Gain using
Successive Voltage and Current Injection
Voltage injection: Voltage source v
X
is
inserted at arbitrary point P in circuit.

v
1
=
|
1+A|
v
x
where |=
R
A
R
A
+R
B
v
2
=v
1
v
x
=
|(1+A|)
1+A|
v
x
T
v
=
v
2
v
1
=
1+A||
|
=T 1+
R
B
R
A
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
+
R
B
R
A
for T =A|
Current injection: Current
source i
X
is inserted again at P.

i
1
=
v
x
R
A
i
2
=
v
x
Av
x
R
B
=v
x
1+A
R
B
T
i
=
i
2
i
1
=
1+A
|
\

|
.
|
R
B
1/R
A
=
R
B
R
A
+T 1+
R
B
R
A
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
T =
T
v
T
i
1
2+T
v
+T
i

R
B
R
A
=
1+T
v
1+T
i
Chap 18 - 27
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Simplifications to Successive Voltage
and Current Injection Method
Technique is valid even if source resistances with v
X
and i
X
are included in analysis.
If at P, R
B
is zero or R
A
is infinite, T can be found by only one measurement and T =
T
v
. In ideal op amp, such point exists at op amp input.
If at P, R
B
is zero, T = T
v
. In ideal op amp, such point exists at op amp output.
If R
A
= 0 or R
B
is infinite, T = T
I
.
In practice, if R
B
>> R
A
or R
A
>> R
B
, the simplified expressions can be used.
Chap 18 - 28
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Blackmans Theorem
First we select ports where resistance is to be calculated.
Next we select one controlled source in the amplifiers equivalent
circuit and use it to disable the feedback loop and also as reference to
find T
SC
and T
OC
.


R
CL
= resistance of closed-loop amplifier looking into one of its ports (any
terminal pair)
R
D
= resistance looking into same pair of terminals with feedback loop
disabled.
T
SC
= Loop gain with a short-circuit applied to selected port
T
OC
= Loop gain with same port open-circuited.

R
CL
=R
D
1+T
SC
1+T
OC
Chap 18 - 29
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 1)
For output
resistance:

R
D
=r
o
1+
|
o
(R R
id
)
r
t
+(R R
id
)
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
=3.18MO
T
SC
=
A
o
v
1
1
= A
o
(|
o
+1)(R R
id
r
o
)
r
t
+(|
o
+1)(R R
id
r
o
)
=9940
T
OC
= A
o
v
1
= A
o
(R R
id
)
r
t
+(R R
id
)
=6350
Problem: Find input and output resistances.
Given data:V
REF
= 5 V, R

= 5 kO, |
o
= 100, V
A
= 50 V, A
o
= 10,000, R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 0
Assumptions: Q-point is known, g
m
= 0.04 S, r
t
= 25 kO, r
o
= 25 kO.

R
out
=3.18MO 1+9940
|
\

|
.
| / 1+6350
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| =5.06 MO
For input
resistance:


R
D
=R
id
+(R
1
g
m
) =25 kO
R
in
=25kO 1+9940
|
\

|
.
| /1
|
\

|
.
| =249 MO
Chap 18 - 30
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 2)
Problem: Find input and output resistances.
Given data:|
o
= 100, V
A
= 100 V, Q-point for Q
1
:(0.66 mA, 2.3 V), Q-point
for Q
2
:(1.6 mA, 7.5 V). For Q
1
, r
t
= 3.79 kO, r
o
= 155 kO, For Q
2
, r
t
= 1.56
kO, r
o
= 64.8 kO.
Chap 18 - 31
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 2 cont.)

R
D
=r
o2
1+
|
o
(1/
22
F
y )
r
t2
+(R
C
r
o1
)+(1/
22
F
y )
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
=321 kO


T
SC
=(9.1kO10kO3.79kO)(g
m1
) 79kO10kO 1.56kO+(|
o
+1)0.901kO
| |
|
\

|
.
|
.
(|
o
+1)0.901kO
1.56kO+(|
o
+1)0.901kO
12
F
y
=48.7
T
OC
=(2.11kO)(400.66mA)(1.93kO)
0.901kO
1.56kO+0.901kO
|
\


|
.
|
|
1
9.1kO
|
\


|
.
|
|
=4.33
R
out
=321kO 1+48.7
|
\

|
.
|
/ 1+4.33
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| =2.99 MO
For input resistance:

R
D
=10kO9.1kOr
t1
=2.11 kO
R
in
=2.11kO
1+0
1+47.8
=42.5 O
For output resistance:
Chap 18 - 32
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 3)
Problem: Find expression for output resistance of the Wilson source.
Analysis: Feedback loop is disabled by
setting reference source i to zero.

R
D
=r
o3
1+
|
o3
(1/g
m1
)
r
o2
+r
t3
+(1/g
m1
)
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
~r
o3
Assuming g
m1
= g
m2
= g
m3
and
f
>> |
o
>> 1.

Next, current source i is set to 1:
i =i
e
=(|
o3
+1)i
b
~
(|
o
+1)
1+
2|
o
+1

f
~(|
o
+1)
T
SC
=|
o
+1 T
OC
=
i
e
i
~1+
|
o
+1

f
~1
R
out
=r
o
1+|
o
+1
1+1
|
\


|
.
|
|
~
|
o
r
o
2
Chap 18 - 33
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Use of Feedback to Control Frequency
Response

A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+A s
( )
| s
( )

A s
( )
=
A
o
e
H
s
(s+e
L
)(s+e
H
)
where

A
v
s
( )
=
A
o
e
H
s
s
2
+ e
L
+e
H
(1+A
o
|)



(

(
s+e
L
e
H
Assuming e
H
1+A
o
|
|
\

|
.
| >>e
L
,
L
F
e
~
e
L
1+A
o
|

H
F
e
~e
H
(1+A
o
|)
BW
F
~e
H
(1+A
o
|)
Upper and lower cutoff frequencies as well as
bandwidth of amplifier are improved, gain is
stabilized at

A
mid
=
A
o
1+A
o
|
~
1
|

GBW=A
mid
BW
F
=A
o
e
H
Chap 18 - 34
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Use of Nyquist Plot to
Determine Stability
If gain of amplifier is greater than or
equal to 1 at the frequency where
feedback is positive, instability can arise.
Poles are at frequencies where T(s) = -1.
In Nyquist plots, each value of s in s-
plane has corresponding value of T(s).
Values of s on je axis are plotted.
If -1 point is enclosed by boundary, there
is some value of s for which T(s) = -1, a
pole exists in RHP and the amplifier is
unstable.
If -1 point lies outside the interior of the
Nyquist plot, all poles of the closed-loop
amplifier are in the LHP and the
amplifier is stable.

A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+T s
( )
Chap 18 - 35
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
First-Order Systems
For a simple low-pass amplifier,

It can also represent a single-pole
op amp with resistive feedback



T s
( )
=
A
o
e
o
s+e
o
|=
T
o
s+e
o


T( je)=
T
o
je+1
At dc, T(0) = T
o
, but for e >>1,

As e increases, magnitude
monotonically approaches zero and
phase asymptotically approaches -90
0
.
As | changes, value of T(0) = T
o
is
scaled but as T(0) changes, radius of
circle changes, but it can never enclose
the -1 point, so amplifier is stable
regardless of value of T
o
.


T( je)=j
T
o
e
Chap 18 - 36
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Second-Order Systems

T s
( )
=
A
o
1+
s
e
1
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+
s
e
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
|=
T
o
1+
s
e
1
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+
s
e
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
In given example,

T(0) = 14, but for high frequencies



As e increases, magnitude
monotonically decreases from 14
towards zero and phase asymptotically
approaches -180
0
The transfer function
can never enclose the -1 point, but it
can come arbitrarily close to it.

T( je)=
14
je+1
|
\

|
.
|
2


T( je)~(j)
2
14
e
2
=
14
e
2
Chap 18 - 37
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Phase Margin
Phase Margin is the maximum
increase in phase shift that can be
tolerated before system becomes
unstable.

|
m
=ZT( je
1
)(180)=180+ZT( je
1
)
Where

First we determine frequency for which
magnitude of loop gain is unity,
corresponding to intersection of the
Nyquist plot with unit circle, and then
determine phase shift at this frequency.
Difference between this angle and -180
0
is
phase margin.
Small phase margin causes excessive
peaking in closed-loop frequency
response and ringing in step response.

T( je
1
) =1
Chap 18 - 38
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Third-Order Systems
In given example,


T(0) = 7, but, for high frequencies



As e increases, polar plot
asymptotically approaches zero along
positive imaginary axis and plot can
enclose the -1 point under many
circumstances and system is unstable.


T s
( )
=
T
o
1+
s
e
1
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+
s
e
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+
s
e
3
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|

T(s)=
14
s
3
+s
2
+3s+2

T( je)~(j)
3
14
e
3
=+j
14
e
3
Chap 18 - 39
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Gain Margin
Gain Margin is the reciprocal of
magnitude of T(je) evaluated at
frequency for which phase shift is
180
0
.


GM=
1
T( je
180
)

where



If magnitude of T(je) is increased by a
factor equal to or exceeding gain margin,
then closed-loop system becomes
unstable, because the Nyquist plot then
encloses -1 point.


ZT( je
180
)=180
GM) log( 20
dB
GM =
Chap 18 - 40
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Bode Plots

A|=
210
19
s+10
5
|
\

|
.
|
s+10
6
|
\

|
.
|
s+10
7
|
\

|
.
|
At 1.2 Mrad/s, magnitude of the loop gain is
unity and corresponding phase shift is 145
o
.
Phase margin is given by 180
o
- 145
o
= 35
o
.
Amplifier can tolerate additional phase shift
of 35
o
before it becomes unstable.
At 3.2 Mrad/s, phase shift is exactly 180
o
and
corresponding magnitude of the loop gain is -
17 dB. Phase margin is given by 17 dB.
Gain of amplifier must increase by 17 dB
before amplifier becomes unstable.
Chap 18 - 41
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Use of Bode plot to Determine Stability
|
1
log 20 log 20 log 20 = A A
Frequency at which curves corresponding to
magnitudes of open-loop gain and reciprocal of
feedback factor intersect is the point at which loop
gain is unity, phase margin is found from phase
plot.


Assuming feedback is independent of frequency,
For 1/| =80 dB, |
m
=85
0
, amplifier is stable.
For 1/| =50 dB, |
m
=15
0
, amplifier is stable, but
with significant overshoot and ringing in its step
response.
For 1/| =0 dB, |
m
= -45
0
, amplifier is unstable

A|=
210
24
s+10
5
|
\

|
.
|
s+310
6
|
\

|
.
|
s+10
8
|
\

|
.
|
Chap 18 - 42
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example
Problem: Find value of compensation capacitor for |
m
= 70
0
.
Given data: R
C1
= 3.3 kO , R
C2
= 12 kO ,SPICE parameters: BF =
100, VAF = 75 V, IS = 0.1 fA, RB = 250 O, TF = 0.75 ns, CJC = 2 pF.
Assumptions: Dominant pole is set
by C
C
and pnp C-E stage. R
Z
is
included to remove zero associated
with C
C
. pnp and npn transistors are
identical; quiescent value of V
o
= 0,
VJC = 0.75 V, MJC = 0.33. Q
4
and
Q
5
are in parallel, small-signal
resistances of diode-connected Q
7
and
Q
8
can be neglected.
Chap 18 - 43
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example (cont.)
Analysis: I
C1
= I
C2
= 250 A. For
V
o
= 0,voltage across R
C2
= 12-
0.75 = 11.3 V and I
C3
= 11.3V/12
kO = 938 A. Q
4
and Q
5
mirror
currents in Q
7
and Q
8
, so, I
C4
=
I
C5
= 938 A. For V
o
= 0, V
CE4
=
12 V, V
CE5
= 12 V, V
CE3
= 11.3
V. For V
I
= 0, V
CE2
= 12.8 V,
V
CE1
= 12-3300(0.25 mA)+0.75 =
11.9 V
Small-signal parameters are
found using their respective
formulae.

A
v1
=
g
m1
2
(2r
o1
R
C1
r
t3
)
A
v1
=
0.01
2
(696kO3.3kO3.07kO)=7.93
A
v2
=g
m2
(r
o3
R
C2
r
t4
2
+(|
o4
+1)R
L
|
\


|
.
|
|
A
v2
=0.0375 92kO12kO
3.09kO
2
+(117)500O





(

(
(
(
A
v2
=338
A
v3
=
(|
o
+1)R
L
r
t4
2
+(|
o4
+1)R
L
=
(117)500
3090
2
+(117)500
A
v3
=0.974
A
v
= A
v1
A
v2
A
v3
=2610
Chap 18 - 44
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example (cont.)
Input stage pole:



Emitter Follower pole: Q
4
and Q
5
are
in parallel, composite parameters are-
g
m
= 0.02 S, r
x
= 125 O, C
t
= 56.2 pF,
C

= 1.60 pF, R
th
= 1/ g
m3
= 267 O.

f
H
=
1
2t
1
r
t
C
t
+C

2+
g
m
R
C
2
+
R
C
r
x
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
f
H
=59.2 MHz

f
H
=
1
2t
1
(R
th
+r
x
+R
L
)
C
t
1+g
m
R
L
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
+C

R
th
+r
x
|
\

|
.
|
f
H
=82.5 MHz
At f
T
,dominant pole due to C
C

contributes phase shift of 90
0
. For |
m
= 70
0
, other 2 poles can contribute
more phase margin of 20
0
.

20=tan
1
f
T
59.2MHz
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
+tan
1
f
T
82.5MHz
|
\



|
.
|
|
|
f
T
=12.2 MHz
C
C
+C
3
|
\

|
.
| =
G
m1
e
T
=
g
m1
2
1
2tf
T
|
\


|
.
|
|
=65 pF
R
Z
= 1/ g
m3
= 27.5 O

is included to
remove zero associated with C
C.


f
B
=
f
T
A
o
=
12.2MHz
2610
=4.67 kHz
Chap 18 - 45
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Barkhausens Criteria for Oscillation.
For sinusoidal oscillator, poles of
closed-loop amplifier should be at
frequency e
o
on je axis.
Use positive feedback through
frequency-selective feedback
network to ensure sustained
oscillation at e
0
.

A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1A s
( )
| s
( )
=
A s
( )
1T s
( )
For sinusoidal oscillations,


Barkhausens criteria state



Phase shift around feedback loop
should be zero degrees and
magnitude of loop gain must be
unity.
Loop gain greater than unity causes
distorted oscillations.







1T je
o
( )
=0T je
o
( )
=+1

ZT je
o
( )
=0
T je
o
( )
=1
Or even multiples
of 360
0

Chap 18 - 46
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Oscillators with Frequency-Selective RC
Networks: Wien-Bridge Oscillator


V
o
(s)=V
1
(s)
Z
2
(s)
Z
1
(s)+Z
2
(s)
T( s )=
V
o
(s)
V
I
(s)
=
sRCG
(1e
2
R
2
C
2
)+3sRC+1
Phase shift will be zero if ,



This oscillator is used for frequencies up to a
few MHz, limited primarily by characteristics
of amplifier.

(1e
2
R
2
C
2
)=0


At e
o
= 1/RC T( je
o
)=+
G
3
T( je
o
) =
G
3
ZT( je
o
)=0
o
Chap 18 - 47
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Oscillators with Frequency-Selective RC
Networks: Phase-Shift Oscillator


sCV
o
'(s)
0





(

(
(
(
=
(2sC+G)
sC
sC
(2sC+G)





(

(
(
(
V
1
(s)
V
2
(s)





(

(
(
(

V
o
(s)
V
2
(s)
=sCR
1
T(s)=
V
o
(s)
V
o
'(s)
=
s
3
C
3
R
2
R
1
3s
2
R
2
C
2
+4sRC+1

Phase shift will be zero if (13e
o
2
R
2
C
2
)=0,
RC
o
3
1
= e


At e
o
, T( je
o
)=
e
o
2
C
2
RR
1
4
=
1
12
R
1
R
Chap 18 - 48
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Amplitude Stabilization
Loop gain of oscillator changes due to power supply voltage,
component value or temperature changes.

If loop gain is too small, desired oscillation decays, and if it is too
large, waveform is distorted.

Amplitude stabilization or gain control is used to automatically
control loop gain and place poles exactly on je axis.

At power on, loop gain is larger than that required for oscillation.
As oscillation builds up, gain is reduced o minimum required to
sustain oscillations.
Chap 18 - 49
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Amplitude Stabilization in RC
Oscillators: Method 1
R
1
is replaced by a lamp. Small-signal resistance of lamp depends on temperature
of bulb filament.
If amplitude is large, current is large, resistance of lamp increases, gain is reduced.
If amplitude is small, lamp cools, resistance decreases, loop gain increases.
Thermal time constant of bulb averages signal current and amplitude is stabilized.
Chap 18 - 50
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Amplitude Stabilization in RC
Oscillators: Method 2
For a positive signal at v
o
, D
1
turns on as
the voltage across R
3
exceeds the diode
turn-on voltage. R
4
is in parallel with R
3
,
loop gain is reduced. D
2
functions
similarly at negative signal peak.

R
2
+R
3
R
1
>2
R
2
+ R
3
R
4
|
\

|
.
|
R
1
<2
Thus, when diodes are off, op amp gain is
slightly > 3 ensuring oscillation, but, when one
diode is on, gain is reduced to slightly < 3.





Same method can also be used in phase shift
oscillators.


i =
v
o
v
1
R
3
+
v
o
v
1
V
D
R
4
v
1
=
v
o
3
1+
R
2
R
1
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
v
o
=
3V
D
2
R
2
R
1
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
1+
R
4
R
3
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|

R
4
R
1

R
2
R
1
<2
Chap 18 - 51
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
LC Oscillators: Colpitts Oscillator

G=1/(R
S
r
o
) C
3
=C
2
+C
GS

0
0





(

(
(
(
=
s(C
3
+C
GD
)+1/sL
s(C
3
+g
m
)
sC
3
s(C
1
+C
3
)+g
m
+G
|
\

|
.
|





(

(
(
(
V
g
(s)
V
s
(s)





(

(
(
(
A=s
2
C
1
C
3
+C
GD
(C
1
+C
3
)
|
\

|
.
| +s (C
GD
+C
3
)G+GC
3
|
\

|
.
|
+
g
m
+G
sL
+
(C
1
+C
3
)
L
A = 0, collect real and imaginary parts and set them
to zero.

e
o
=
1
LC
TC
C
TC
=C
GD
+
C
1
C
3
C
1
+C
3
At e
o
, g
m
R=
C
3
C
1
Generally more gain is used to ensure oscillation
with amplitude stabilization.
Chap 18 - 52
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
LC Oscillators: Hartley Oscillator

0
0





(

(
(
(
=
sC+1/sL
2
(1/sL
2
)+g
m
|
\

|
.
|
1/sL
2
(1/sL
1
)+(1/sL
2
)+g
m
+g
o
|
\

|
.
|





(

(
(
(
V
g
(s)
V
s
(s)





(

(
(
(
A=sC g
m
+g
o
|
\

|
.
| +
g
m
sL
2
+
1
s
2
L
1
L
2
+C
1
L
1
+
1
L
2
|
\




|
.
|
|
|
|
A = 0, collect real and imaginary parts and set
them to zero.

e
o
=
1
C(L
1
+L
2
)
At e
o
,
f
=
L
1
L
2
Generally more gain is used to ensure oscillation
with amplitude stabilization.
G-S and G-D capacitances are
neglected, assume no mutual
coupling between inductors.
Chap 18 - 53
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Amplitude Stabilization in LC
Oscillators
Inherent nonlinear characteristics of transistors are used to limit
oscillation amplitude. Eg: rectification by JFET gate diode or BJT
base-emitter diode.
In MOS version, diode and R
G
form rectifier to establish negative bias
on gate, capacitors act as rectifier filter.
Practically, onset of oscillation is accompanied by slight shift in Q-
point values as oscillator adjusts to limit amplitude.
Chap 18 - 54
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Crystal Oscillators
Crystal: A piezoelectric device that vibrates
is response to electrical stimulus, can be
modeled electrically by a very high Q (
> 10,000) resonant circuit.
L, C
S
, R represent intrinsic series resonance
path through crystal. C
P
is package
capacitance. Equivalent impedance has series
resonance where C
S
resonates with L and
parallel resonance where L resonates with
series combination of C
S
and C
P
.

Z
C
=
Z
P
Z
S
Z
P
+Z
S
=
1
sC
P
s
2
+s
R
L
+
1
LC
S
s
2
+s
R
L
+
1
LC
T
|
\







|
.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
C
T
=
C
P
C
S
C
P
+C
S
Below e
S
and above e
P
,
crystal appears capacitive,
between e
S
and e
P
it exhibits
inductive reactance.
Chap 18 - 55
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Crystal Oscillators: Example
Problem: Find equivalent circuit elements for crystal with given parameters.
Given data: f
S
= 5 MHz, Q = 20,000 R = 50 O, C
P
= 5 pF
Analysis:



L=
RQ
e
S
=
50(20,000)
2t (510
6
)
=31.8 mH
C
S
=
1
e
S
2
L
=
1
10
7
t
|
\


|
.
|
|
2
(0.0318)
=31.8 fF
f
P
=
1
2t L
C
P
C
S
C
P
+C
S
=
1
2t (31.8mH)(31.6 fF)
f
P
=5.02 MHz
Chap 18 - 56
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
Crystal Oscillators: Topologies
Colpitts Crystal Oscillator Crystal Oscillator using BJT
Crystal Oscillator using JFET
Crystal Oscillator using CMOS
inverter as gain element.
Chap 18 - 57
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGraw-Hill
End of Chpater 18
Chap 18 - 58