3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Chapter 18
Feedback, Stability and Oscillators
Microelectronic Circuit Design
Richard C. Jaeger
Travis N. Blalock
Chap 18  1
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Chapter Goals
Review concepts of negative and positive feedback.
Develop twoport approach to analysis of negative feedback amplifiers.
Understand topologies and characteristics of seriesshunt, shuntshunt, shunt
series and seriesseries feedback configurations.
Discuss common errors that occur in applying twoport feedback theory.
Discuss effects of feedback on frequency response and feedback amplifier
stability and interpret stability in in terms of Nyquist and Bode plots.
Use SPICE ac and transfer function analyses on feedback amplifiers.
Determine loopgain of closedloop amplifiers using SPICE simulation or
measurement.
Discuss Barkhausen criteria for oscillation and amplitude stabilization
Understand basic RC, LC and crystal oscillator circuits and present LCR model
of quartz crystal.
Chap 18  2
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Feedback Effects
Gain Stability: Feedback reduces sensitivity of gain to variations in
values of transistor parameters and circuit elements.
Input and Output Impedances: Feedback can increase or decrease input
and output resistances of an amplifier.
Bandwidth: Bandwidth of amplifier can be extended using feedback.
Nonlinear Distortion: Feedback reduces effects of nonlinear
distortion.eg: removal of dead zone in classB amplifiers
Chap 18  3
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Classic Feedback Systems
A(s) = transfer function of open
loop amplifier or openloop gain.
(s) = transfer function of
feedback network.
V
d
(s)=V
i
(s)V
f
(s)
V
o
(s)=V
d
(s)A(s)
V
f
(s)=V
o
(s)(s)
A
v
s
( )
=
V
o
(s)
V
i
(s)
=
A s
( )
1+A s
( )
 s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+T s
( )
T(s) = A = loop gain
For negative feedback: T(s) > 0
For positive feedback: T(s) < 0
Chap 18  4
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Voltage Amplifiers: SeriesShunt
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)
1
A
v
=
11
A
h
i
1
+
12
A
h
v
2
1
F
v
=
11
F
h
i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
2
A
i
=
21
A
h
i
1
+
22
A
h
v
2
2
F
i
=
21
F
h
i
1
+
22
F
h
v
2
ij
T
h
=
ij
A
h
+
ij
F
h
and
21
A
h
>>
21
F
h
,
12
F
h
>>
12
A
h
v
1
=
11
T
h
i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
v
i
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h
v
2
i
2
=
21
A
h
i
1
+
22
T
h
v
2
0=
21
A
h
i
1
+(
22
T
h
+G
L
)v
2
A
v
=
v
2
v
i
=
21
A
h
21
A
h 12
F
h
(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
=
A
1+A
A=
21
A
h
(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
=
12
F
h
Chap 18  5
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Voltage Amplifiers: SeriesShunt
Feedback (TwoPort Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required hparameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Twoport representation of the
amplifier is as shown
11
F
h
22
F
h
Chap 18  6
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Voltage Amplifiers: SeriesShunt
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)
v
i
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h

21
A
h
(
22
T
h
+G
L
)
i
1
R
in
=
v
i
i
1
=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)(1+A)
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A)
Series feedback at a port increases
input resistance at that port.
For output resistance:
v
1
=R
I
i
1
v
2
=v
x
i
2
=i
x
=G
L
v
2
i
x
=
21
A
h
i
1
+(
22
T
h
+G
L
)v
x
0=(R
I
+
11
T
h
)i
1
+
12
F
h
v
x
R
out
=
v
x
i
x
=
1
22
T
h
+G
L

\

.




1+A
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A
Shunt feedback at a port reduces
resistance at that port.
Chap 18  7
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Voltage Amplifiers
SeriesShunt Feedback (Example)
Problem: Find A, , closedloop
gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: R
1
= 10 kO, R
2
= 91 kO,
R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 1 kO, A = 10
4
.
Analysis:
11
F
h
=
v
1
i
1
v
2
= 0
=R
1
R
2
=9.01 kO
22
F
h
=
i
2
v
2
i
1
= 0
=
1
R
1
+R
2
=
1
101 kO
12
F
h
=
v
1
v
2
i
1
= 0
=
R
1
R
1
+R
2
=0.0990
Chap 18  8
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Voltage Amplifiers
SeriesShunt Feedback (Example cont.)
A=
v
o
v
i
=
25kO
1kO+25kO+9.01kO
(10
4
)
1.96kO
1.96kO+1.00kO
=4730
A
v
=
A
1+A
=
4730
1+4730(0.0990)
=10.1
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A)=16.4MO
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A
=1.41O
Chap 18  9
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transresistance Amplifiers: ShuntShunt
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)
1
A
i
=
11
A
y v
1
+
12
A
y v
2
1
F
i
=
11
F
y v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
2
A
i
=
21
A
y v
1
+
22
A
y v
2
2
F
i
=
21
F
y v
1
+
22
F
y v
2
ij
T
y =
ij
A
y +
ij
F
y and
21
A
y >>
21
F
y ,
12
F
y >>
12
A
y
i
1
=
11
T
y v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y v
2
i
2
=
21
A
y v
1
+
22
T
y v
2
0=
21
A
y v
1
+(
22
T
y +G
L
)v
2
A
tr
=
v
2
i
i
=
21
A
y
21
A
y
12
F
y (G
I
+
11
T
y )(
22
T
y +G
L
)
=
A
1+A
A=
21
A
y
(G
I
+
11
T
y )(
22
T
y +G
L
)
=
12
F
y
Chap 18  10
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transresistance Amplifiers: ShuntShunt
Feedback (TwoPort Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required yparameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Twoport representation of the
amplifier is as shown.
11
F
y
22
F
y
Chap 18  11
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transresistance Amplifiers: ShuntShunt
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y

21
A
y
(
22
T
y +G
L
)
v
1
R
in
=
v
1
i
i
=
1
G
I
+
11
T
h

\

.




(1+A)
=
in
A
R
(1+A)
Shunt feedback at a port reduces resistance
at that port.
For output resistance:
i
1
=G
I
v
1
i
2
=i
x
=G
L
v
2
i
x
=
21
A
y v
1
+(
22
T
y +G
L
)v
x
0=(G
I
+
11
T
y )v
1
+
12
F
y v
x
R
out
=
v
x
i
x
=
1
22
T
y +G
L

\

.




1+A
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A
Resistance at output port is reduced due to
shunt feedback.
Chap 18  12
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transresistance Amplifiers
ShuntShunt Feedback (Example)
Problem: Find A, , closedloop
gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: V
A
= 50 V, 
F
= 150
Analysis: For the dc equivalent
circuit,
11
F
y =
i
1
v
1
v
2
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
5
S
22
F
y =
i
2
v
2
i
2
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
5
S
12
F
y =
i
1
v
2
v
1
= 0
=
1
R
F
=10
5
S
I
C
=
V
CC
V
BE
R
C
+
R
C
+R
F

F
=0.970 mA
V
CE
=V
CC
(I
C
+I
B
)R
C
=1.35 V
g
m
=40(0.977mA)=39.1 mS
r
t
=
1
g
m
=3.84 kO r
o
=
50V +1.35V
0.977mA
=52.6 kO
Chap 18  13
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transresistance Amplifiers
ShuntShunt Feedback (Example cont.)
A=
v
o
i
i
=
4.76kO
4.76kO+3.84kO
(150)1.41kO52.6kO

\

.
 =114 kO
A
tr
=
A
1+A
=
114kO
1114kO(0.01mS)
=53.3 kO
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A)= R
I
R
F
r
t

\

.

(1+A)=995 O
R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A
=
R
L
R
F
R
C
r
o
1+A
=640 O
i
b
=i
i
4.76kO
4.76kO+r
t
v
o
=
o
i
b
(1.41kOr
o
)
Chap 18  14
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Current Amplifiers: ShuntSeries
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)
i
1
=
1
A
i
+
1
F
i
v
2
=
2
A
v
+
2
F
v
ij
T
g =
ij
A
g +
ij
F
g and
21
A
g >>
21
F
g ,
12
F
g >>
12
A
g
i
1
=
11
T
g v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
v
2
=
21
A
g v
1
+
22
T
g i
2
0=
21
A
g v
1
+(
22
T
g +R
L
)i
2
A
i
=
i
2
i
i
=
21
A
g
21
A
g
12
F
g (G
I
+
11
T
g )(
22
T
g +R
L
)
=
A
1+A
A=
21
A
g
(G
I
+
11
T
g )(
22
T
g +R
L
)
=
12
F
g
Chap 18  15
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Current Amplifiers: ShuntSeries
Feedback (TwoPort Representation)
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required gparameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Twoport representation of the
amplifier is as shown
11
F
g
22
F
g
Chap 18  16
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Current Amplifiers: ShuntSeries
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)
i
i
=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g

21
A
g
(
22
T
g +R
L
)
v
1
R
in
=
v
1
i
i
=
1
G
I
+
11
T
g

\

.




(1+A)
=
in
A
R
(1+A)
Shunt feedback at a port decreases
resistance at that port.
For output resistance:
R
out
=
v
x
i
2
=
22
T
g +R
L

\

.
 1+A

\

.

R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A

\

.

Series feedback at output port increases
resistance at that port.
i
1
=G
I
v
1
v
2
=v
x
=R
L
i
2
v
x
=
21
A
g v
1
+(
22
T
g +R
L
)i
2
0=(G
I
+
11
T
g )v
1
+
12
F
g i
2
Chap 18  17
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transconductance Amplifiers: SeriesSeries
Feedback (Voltage Gain Calculation)
v
1
=
1
A
v
+
1
F
v
v
2
=
2
A
v
+
2
F
v
ij
T
z =
ij
A
z +
ij
F
z and
21
A
z >>
21
F
z ,
12
F
z >>
12
A
z
v
1
=
11
T
z i
1
+
12
T
z i
2
v
i
=(R
S
+
11
T
z )i
1
+
12
F
z i
2
v
2
=
21
T
z i
1
+
22
T
z i
2
0=
21
T
z i
1
+(
22
T
z +R
L
)i
2
A
tc
=
i
2
v
i
=
21
A
z
21
A
z
12
F
z (R
I
+
11
T
z )(
22
T
z +R
L
)
=
A
1+A
A=
21
A
z
(R
I
+
11
T
z )(
22
T
z +R
L
)
=z
12
F
Chap 18  18
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Transconductance Amplifiers: SeriesSeries
Feedback (Input and Output Resistances)
R
out
=
v
x
i
2
=
22
T
z +R
L

\

.
 1+A

\

.

R
out
=
out
A
R
1+A

\

.

R
in
=
v
i
i
1
=
11
T
z +R
I

\

.
 1+A

\

.

R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A

\

.

Series feedback at input and output
port increases resistance at both ports.
Chap 18  19
Gain of amplifier should include
effects of , , R
I
and R
L
.
Required yparameters are found
from their individual definitions.
Twoport representation of the
amplifier is as shown.
11
F
z
22
F
z
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Erroneous Application of TwoPort
Feedback Theory
Problem: Find A, , closedloop gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: V
REF
= 5 V, 
o
= 100, V
A
= 50 V, A
o
= 10,000, R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 0
Analysis: The circuit is redrawn to identify amplifier and feedback networks and
appropriate 2port parameters of feedback network are found.
This case seems to
use seriesseries
feedback.
i
e
is sampled by feedback network instead of i
o
. This assumption is made since
o
o
is approximately 1.
Chap 18  20
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Erroneous Application of TwoPort
Feedback Theory (cont.)
zparameters are found
as shown. From A
circuit, I
E
= 1 mA
r
t
~
1000(0.025V)
1mA
=2.5kO r
o
~
50V
1mA
=50kO
i
o
=v
i
R
id
R
id
+R
A
o

o
r
t
+(
o
+1)R
A
tc
=
i
o
v
i
=
A
1+A
=
1.64S
1+1.64S(5kO)
=0.200 mS
R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A

\

.
 =(R
id
+R)1+A

\

.
 =246 MO R
in
=
in
A
R
1+A

\

.
 =27.7 GO
Chap 18  21
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Erroneous Application of TwoPort
Feedback Theory (cont.)
SPICE analyses confirm results for A
tc
and R
in
,
but results for R
out
are in error. For A
tc
and R
in
,
amplifier can be properly modeled as a series
shunt feedback amplifier, as collector of Q
1
can
be directly connected to ground for calculations
and a valid 2port representation exists as shown.
Results for R
out
are in error because
output of op amp is referenced to ground,
base current of BJT is lost from output
port and feedback loop and R
out
is limited
to
3 and 4 are not valid terminals as current
entering 3 is not same as that exiting 4.
Amplifier cant be reduced to a 2port.
R
out
s
o
r
o
Chap 18  22
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Analysis of ShuntSeries Feedback Pair
Problem: Find A, , closedloop gain, input and output resistances.
Given data: 
o
= 100, V
A
= 100 V, Qpoint for Q
1
:(0.66 mA, 2.3 V), Qpoint for
Q
2
:(1.6 mA, 7.5 V)
Analysis: The circuit is redrawn to identify amplifier and feedback networks and
appropriate 2port parameters of feedback network are found.
Shuntshunt transresistance configuration is used.
Chap 18  23
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Analysis of ShuntSeries Feedback Pair
(cont.)
Small signal parameters are found
from given Qpoints.
For Q
1
, r
t
= 3.79 kO, r
o
= 155 kO.
For Q
2
, r
t
= 1.56 kO, r
o
= 64.8 kO.
v
th
=i
i
R
B
R
B
+r
t1

o1
(r
o1
R
C
)
v
th
=4.9410
5
i
i
R
th
=10kOr
o1
=8.88kO
v
2
=v
th
=
(
o2
+1)(0.901kO)
8.88kO+r
t2
+(
o2
+1)(0.901kO)
Chap 18  24
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Analysis of ShuntSeries Feedback Pair
(cont.)
A=
v
2
i
i
=4.4310
5
O
=
12
F
y
=
1
9100
S
A
tr
=
A
1+A
=8910 O
R
in
=
in
A
R
(1+A)
=
R
B
r
t1
(1+A)
=42.5 O
R
out
=
out
A
R
(1+A)
=1.86 O
Closedloop current gain is given by:
A
i
=
i
o
i
i
=
o
o
i
e
i
i
=
o
o
v
2
901O
i
i
=
o
o
901O
A
tr
=9.79
Chap 18  25
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Direct Calculation of Loop Gain
Original input source is set to zero.
Test source is inserted at the point
where feedback loop is broken.
v
r
=v
o
=A(0v
x
)=Av
x
T =
A

=
v
r
v
x
Example:
is added for proper
termination of feedback loop.
R
3
=R
2
R
1
v
r
=v
o
R
1
R
1
+R
2
=
R
1
R
1
+R
2

\

.




Av
x
R
id
R
id
+R
3

\

.




T =
v
r
v
x
= A
R
1
R
1
+R
2

\

.




R
id
R
id
+R
3

\

.




Chap 18  26
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Calculation of Loop Gain using
Successive Voltage and Current Injection
Voltage injection: Voltage source v
X
is
inserted at arbitrary point P in circuit.
v
1
=

1+A
v
x
where =
R
A
R
A
+R
B
v
2
=v
1
v
x
=
(1+A)
1+A
v
x
T
v
=
v
2
v
1
=
1+A

=T 1+
R
B
R
A

\

.




+
R
B
R
A
for T =A
Current injection: Current
source i
X
is inserted again at P.
i
1
=
v
x
R
A
i
2
=
v
x
Av
x
R
B
=v
x
1+A
R
B
T
i
=
i
2
i
1
=
1+A

\

.

R
B
1/R
A
=
R
B
R
A
+T 1+
R
B
R
A

\

.




T =
T
v
T
i
1
2+T
v
+T
i
R
B
R
A
=
1+T
v
1+T
i
Chap 18  27
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Simplifications to Successive Voltage
and Current Injection Method
Technique is valid even if source resistances with v
X
and i
X
are included in analysis.
If at P, R
B
is zero or R
A
is infinite, T can be found by only one measurement and T =
T
v
. In ideal op amp, such point exists at op amp input.
If at P, R
B
is zero, T = T
v
. In ideal op amp, such point exists at op amp output.
If R
A
= 0 or R
B
is infinite, T = T
I
.
In practice, if R
B
>> R
A
or R
A
>> R
B
, the simplified expressions can be used.
Chap 18  28
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Blackmans Theorem
First we select ports where resistance is to be calculated.
Next we select one controlled source in the amplifiers equivalent
circuit and use it to disable the feedback loop and also as reference to
find T
SC
and T
OC
.
R
CL
= resistance of closedloop amplifier looking into one of its ports (any
terminal pair)
R
D
= resistance looking into same pair of terminals with feedback loop
disabled.
T
SC
= Loop gain with a shortcircuit applied to selected port
T
OC
= Loop gain with same port opencircuited.
R
CL
=R
D
1+T
SC
1+T
OC
Chap 18  29
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 1)
For output
resistance:
R
D
=r
o
1+

o
(R R
id
)
r
t
+(R R
id
)

\

.




=3.18MO
T
SC
=
A
o
v
1
1
= A
o
(
o
+1)(R R
id
r
o
)
r
t
+(
o
+1)(R R
id
r
o
)
=9940
T
OC
= A
o
v
1
= A
o
(R R
id
)
r
t
+(R R
id
)
=6350
Problem: Find input and output resistances.
Given data:V
REF
= 5 V, R
= 5 kO, 
o
= 100, V
A
= 50 V, A
o
= 10,000, R
id
= 25 kO, R
o
= 0
Assumptions: Qpoint is known, g
m
= 0.04 S, r
t
= 25 kO, r
o
= 25 kO.
R
out
=3.18MO 1+9940

\

.
 / 1+6350

\

.


\

.
 =5.06 MO
For input
resistance:
R
D
=R
id
+(R
1
g
m
) =25 kO
R
in
=25kO 1+9940

\

.
 /1

\

.
 =249 MO
Chap 18  30
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 2)
Problem: Find input and output resistances.
Given data:
o
= 100, V
A
= 100 V, Qpoint for Q
1
:(0.66 mA, 2.3 V), Qpoint
for Q
2
:(1.6 mA, 7.5 V). For Q
1
, r
t
= 3.79 kO, r
o
= 155 kO, For Q
2
, r
t
= 1.56
kO, r
o
= 64.8 kO.
Chap 18  31
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 2 cont.)
R
D
=r
o2
1+

o
(1/
22
F
y )
r
t2
+(R
C
r
o1
)+(1/
22
F
y )

\

.




=321 kO
T
SC
=(9.1kO10kO3.79kO)(g
m1
) 79kO10kO 1.56kO+(
o
+1)0.901kO
 

\

.

.
(
o
+1)0.901kO
1.56kO+(
o
+1)0.901kO
12
F
y
=48.7
T
OC
=(2.11kO)(400.66mA)(1.93kO)
0.901kO
1.56kO+0.901kO

\

.


1
9.1kO

\

.


=4.33
R
out
=321kO 1+48.7

\

.

/ 1+4.33

\

.


\

.
 =2.99 MO
For input resistance:
R
D
=10kO9.1kOr
t1
=2.11 kO
R
in
=2.11kO
1+0
1+47.8
=42.5 O
For output resistance:
Chap 18  32
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Blackmans Theorem (Example 3)
Problem: Find expression for output resistance of the Wilson source.
Analysis: Feedback loop is disabled by
setting reference source i to zero.
R
D
=r
o3
1+

o3
(1/g
m1
)
r
o2
+r
t3
+(1/g
m1
)

\

.



~r
o3
Assuming g
m1
= g
m2
= g
m3
and
f
>> 
o
>> 1.
Next, current source i is set to 1:
i =i
e
=(
o3
+1)i
b
~
(
o
+1)
1+
2
o
+1
f
~(
o
+1)
T
SC
=
o
+1 T
OC
=
i
e
i
~1+

o
+1
f
~1
R
out
=r
o
1+
o
+1
1+1

\

.


~

o
r
o
2
Chap 18  33
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Use of Feedback to Control Frequency
Response
A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+A s
( )
 s
( )
A s
( )
=
A
o
e
H
s
(s+e
L
)(s+e
H
)
where
A
v
s
( )
=
A
o
e
H
s
s
2
+ e
L
+e
H
(1+A
o
)
(
(
s+e
L
e
H
Assuming e
H
1+A
o


\

.
 >>e
L
,
L
F
e
~
e
L
1+A
o

H
F
e
~e
H
(1+A
o
)
BW
F
~e
H
(1+A
o
)
Upper and lower cutoff frequencies as well as
bandwidth of amplifier are improved, gain is
stabilized at
A
mid
=
A
o
1+A
o

~
1

GBW=A
mid
BW
F
=A
o
e
H
Chap 18  34
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Use of Nyquist Plot to
Determine Stability
If gain of amplifier is greater than or
equal to 1 at the frequency where
feedback is positive, instability can arise.
Poles are at frequencies where T(s) = 1.
In Nyquist plots, each value of s in s
plane has corresponding value of T(s).
Values of s on je axis are plotted.
If 1 point is enclosed by boundary, there
is some value of s for which T(s) = 1, a
pole exists in RHP and the amplifier is
unstable.
If 1 point lies outside the interior of the
Nyquist plot, all poles of the closedloop
amplifier are in the LHP and the
amplifier is stable.
A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1+T s
( )
Chap 18  35
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
FirstOrder Systems
For a simple lowpass amplifier,
It can also represent a singlepole
op amp with resistive feedback
T s
( )
=
A
o
e
o
s+e
o
=
T
o
s+e
o
T( je)=
T
o
je+1
At dc, T(0) = T
o
, but for e >>1,
As e increases, magnitude
monotonically approaches zero and
phase asymptotically approaches 90
0
.
As  changes, value of T(0) = T
o
is
scaled but as T(0) changes, radius of
circle changes, but it can never enclose
the 1 point, so amplifier is stable
regardless of value of T
o
.
T( je)=j
T
o
e
Chap 18  36
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
SecondOrder Systems
T s
( )
=
A
o
1+
s
e
1

\

.




1+
s
e
2

\

.




=
T
o
1+
s
e
1

\

.




1+
s
e
2

\

.




In given example,
T(0) = 14, but for high frequencies
As e increases, magnitude
monotonically decreases from 14
towards zero and phase asymptotically
approaches 180
0
The transfer function
can never enclose the 1 point, but it
can come arbitrarily close to it.
T( je)=
14
je+1

\

.

2
T( je)~(j)
2
14
e
2
=
14
e
2
Chap 18  37
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Phase Margin
Phase Margin is the maximum
increase in phase shift that can be
tolerated before system becomes
unstable.

m
=ZT( je
1
)(180)=180+ZT( je
1
)
Where
First we determine frequency for which
magnitude of loop gain is unity,
corresponding to intersection of the
Nyquist plot with unit circle, and then
determine phase shift at this frequency.
Difference between this angle and 180
0
is
phase margin.
Small phase margin causes excessive
peaking in closedloop frequency
response and ringing in step response.
T( je
1
) =1
Chap 18  38
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
ThirdOrder Systems
In given example,
T(0) = 7, but, for high frequencies
As e increases, polar plot
asymptotically approaches zero along
positive imaginary axis and plot can
enclose the 1 point under many
circumstances and system is unstable.
T s
( )
=
T
o
1+
s
e
1

\

.




1+
s
e
2

\

.




1+
s
e
3

\

.




T(s)=
14
s
3
+s
2
+3s+2
T( je)~(j)
3
14
e
3
=+j
14
e
3
Chap 18  39
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Gain Margin
Gain Margin is the reciprocal of
magnitude of T(je) evaluated at
frequency for which phase shift is
180
0
.
GM=
1
T( je
180
)
where
If magnitude of T(je) is increased by a
factor equal to or exceeding gain margin,
then closedloop system becomes
unstable, because the Nyquist plot then
encloses 1 point.
ZT( je
180
)=180
GM) log( 20
dB
GM =
Chap 18  40
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Bode Plots
A=
210
19
s+10
5

\

.

s+10
6

\

.

s+10
7

\

.

At 1.2 Mrad/s, magnitude of the loop gain is
unity and corresponding phase shift is 145
o
.
Phase margin is given by 180
o
 145
o
= 35
o
.
Amplifier can tolerate additional phase shift
of 35
o
before it becomes unstable.
At 3.2 Mrad/s, phase shift is exactly 180
o
and
corresponding magnitude of the loop gain is 
17 dB. Phase margin is given by 17 dB.
Gain of amplifier must increase by 17 dB
before amplifier becomes unstable.
Chap 18  41
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Use of Bode plot to Determine Stability

1
log 20 log 20 log 20 = A A
Frequency at which curves corresponding to
magnitudes of openloop gain and reciprocal of
feedback factor intersect is the point at which loop
gain is unity, phase margin is found from phase
plot.
Assuming feedback is independent of frequency,
For 1/ =80 dB, 
m
=85
0
, amplifier is stable.
For 1/ =50 dB, 
m
=15
0
, amplifier is stable, but
with significant overshoot and ringing in its step
response.
For 1/ =0 dB, 
m
= 45
0
, amplifier is unstable
A=
210
24
s+10
5

\

.

s+310
6

\

.

s+10
8

\

.

Chap 18  42
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example
Problem: Find value of compensation capacitor for 
m
= 70
0
.
Given data: R
C1
= 3.3 kO , R
C2
= 12 kO ,SPICE parameters: BF =
100, VAF = 75 V, IS = 0.1 fA, RB = 250 O, TF = 0.75 ns, CJC = 2 pF.
Assumptions: Dominant pole is set
by C
C
and pnp CE stage. R
Z
is
included to remove zero associated
with C
C
. pnp and npn transistors are
identical; quiescent value of V
o
= 0,
VJC = 0.75 V, MJC = 0.33. Q
4
and
Q
5
are in parallel, smallsignal
resistances of diodeconnected Q
7
and
Q
8
can be neglected.
Chap 18  43
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example (cont.)
Analysis: I
C1
= I
C2
= 250 A. For
V
o
= 0,voltage across R
C2
= 12
0.75 = 11.3 V and I
C3
= 11.3V/12
kO = 938 A. Q
4
and Q
5
mirror
currents in Q
7
and Q
8
, so, I
C4
=
I
C5
= 938 A. For V
o
= 0, V
CE4
=
12 V, V
CE5
= 12 V, V
CE3
= 11.3
V. For V
I
= 0, V
CE2
= 12.8 V,
V
CE1
= 123300(0.25 mA)+0.75 =
11.9 V
Smallsignal parameters are
found using their respective
formulae.
A
v1
=
g
m1
2
(2r
o1
R
C1
r
t3
)
A
v1
=
0.01
2
(696kO3.3kO3.07kO)=7.93
A
v2
=g
m2
(r
o3
R
C2
r
t4
2
+(
o4
+1)R
L

\

.


A
v2
=0.0375 92kO12kO
3.09kO
2
+(117)500O
(
(
(
(
A
v2
=338
A
v3
=
(
o
+1)R
L
r
t4
2
+(
o4
+1)R
L
=
(117)500
3090
2
+(117)500
A
v3
=0.974
A
v
= A
v1
A
v2
A
v3
=2610
Chap 18  44
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Operational Amplifier
Compensation Example (cont.)
Input stage pole:
Emitter Follower pole: Q
4
and Q
5
are
in parallel, composite parameters are
g
m
= 0.02 S, r
x
= 125 O, C
t
= 56.2 pF,
C
= 1.60 pF, R
th
= 1/ g
m3
= 267 O.
f
H
=
1
2t
1
r
t
C
t
+C
2+
g
m
R
C
2
+
R
C
r
x

\

.





\

.




f
H
=59.2 MHz
f
H
=
1
2t
1
(R
th
+r
x
+R
L
)
C
t
1+g
m
R
L

\

.




+C
R
th
+r
x

\

.

f
H
=82.5 MHz
At f
T
,dominant pole due to C
C
contributes phase shift of 90
0
. For 
m
= 70
0
, other 2 poles can contribute
more phase margin of 20
0
.
20=tan
1
f
T
59.2MHz

\

.



+tan
1
f
T
82.5MHz

\

.



f
T
=12.2 MHz
C
C
+C
3

\

.
 =
G
m1
e
T
=
g
m1
2
1
2tf
T

\

.


=65 pF
R
Z
= 1/ g
m3
= 27.5 O
is included to
remove zero associated with C
C.
f
B
=
f
T
A
o
=
12.2MHz
2610
=4.67 kHz
Chap 18  45
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Barkhausens Criteria for Oscillation.
For sinusoidal oscillator, poles of
closedloop amplifier should be at
frequency e
o
on je axis.
Use positive feedback through
frequencyselective feedback
network to ensure sustained
oscillation at e
0
.
A
v
s
( )
=
A s
( )
1A s
( )
 s
( )
=
A s
( )
1T s
( )
For sinusoidal oscillations,
Barkhausens criteria state
Phase shift around feedback loop
should be zero degrees and
magnitude of loop gain must be
unity.
Loop gain greater than unity causes
distorted oscillations.
1T je
o
( )
=0T je
o
( )
=+1
ZT je
o
( )
=0
T je
o
( )
=1
Or even multiples
of 360
0
Chap 18  46
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Oscillators with FrequencySelective RC
Networks: WienBridge Oscillator
V
o
(s)=V
1
(s)
Z
2
(s)
Z
1
(s)+Z
2
(s)
T( s )=
V
o
(s)
V
I
(s)
=
sRCG
(1e
2
R
2
C
2
)+3sRC+1
Phase shift will be zero if ,
This oscillator is used for frequencies up to a
few MHz, limited primarily by characteristics
of amplifier.
(1e
2
R
2
C
2
)=0
At e
o
= 1/RC T( je
o
)=+
G
3
T( je
o
) =
G
3
ZT( je
o
)=0
o
Chap 18  47
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Oscillators with FrequencySelective RC
Networks: PhaseShift Oscillator
sCV
o
'(s)
0
(
(
(
(
=
(2sC+G)
sC
sC
(2sC+G)
(
(
(
(
V
1
(s)
V
2
(s)
(
(
(
(
V
o
(s)
V
2
(s)
=sCR
1
T(s)=
V
o
(s)
V
o
'(s)
=
s
3
C
3
R
2
R
1
3s
2
R
2
C
2
+4sRC+1
Phase shift will be zero if (13e
o
2
R
2
C
2
)=0,
RC
o
3
1
= e
At e
o
, T( je
o
)=
e
o
2
C
2
RR
1
4
=
1
12
R
1
R
Chap 18  48
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Amplitude Stabilization
Loop gain of oscillator changes due to power supply voltage,
component value or temperature changes.
If loop gain is too small, desired oscillation decays, and if it is too
large, waveform is distorted.
Amplitude stabilization or gain control is used to automatically
control loop gain and place poles exactly on je axis.
At power on, loop gain is larger than that required for oscillation.
As oscillation builds up, gain is reduced o minimum required to
sustain oscillations.
Chap 18  49
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Amplitude Stabilization in RC
Oscillators: Method 1
R
1
is replaced by a lamp. Smallsignal resistance of lamp depends on temperature
of bulb filament.
If amplitude is large, current is large, resistance of lamp increases, gain is reduced.
If amplitude is small, lamp cools, resistance decreases, loop gain increases.
Thermal time constant of bulb averages signal current and amplitude is stabilized.
Chap 18  50
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Amplitude Stabilization in RC
Oscillators: Method 2
For a positive signal at v
o
, D
1
turns on as
the voltage across R
3
exceeds the diode
turnon voltage. R
4
is in parallel with R
3
,
loop gain is reduced. D
2
functions
similarly at negative signal peak.
R
2
+R
3
R
1
>2
R
2
+ R
3
R
4

\

.

R
1
<2
Thus, when diodes are off, op amp gain is
slightly > 3 ensuring oscillation, but, when one
diode is on, gain is reduced to slightly < 3.
Same method can also be used in phase shift
oscillators.
i =
v
o
v
1
R
3
+
v
o
v
1
V
D
R
4
v
1
=
v
o
3
1+
R
2
R
1

\

.




v
o
=
3V
D
2
R
2
R
1

\

.




1+
R
4
R
3

\

.




R
4
R
1
R
2
R
1
<2
Chap 18  51
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
LC Oscillators: Colpitts Oscillator
G=1/(R
S
r
o
) C
3
=C
2
+C
GS
0
0
(
(
(
(
=
s(C
3
+C
GD
)+1/sL
s(C
3
+g
m
)
sC
3
s(C
1
+C
3
)+g
m
+G

\

.

(
(
(
(
V
g
(s)
V
s
(s)
(
(
(
(
A=s
2
C
1
C
3
+C
GD
(C
1
+C
3
)

\

.
 +s (C
GD
+C
3
)G+GC
3

\

.

+
g
m
+G
sL
+
(C
1
+C
3
)
L
A = 0, collect real and imaginary parts and set them
to zero.
e
o
=
1
LC
TC
C
TC
=C
GD
+
C
1
C
3
C
1
+C
3
At e
o
, g
m
R=
C
3
C
1
Generally more gain is used to ensure oscillation
with amplitude stabilization.
Chap 18  52
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
LC Oscillators: Hartley Oscillator
0
0
(
(
(
(
=
sC+1/sL
2
(1/sL
2
)+g
m

\

.

1/sL
2
(1/sL
1
)+(1/sL
2
)+g
m
+g
o

\

.

(
(
(
(
V
g
(s)
V
s
(s)
(
(
(
(
A=sC g
m
+g
o

\

.
 +
g
m
sL
2
+
1
s
2
L
1
L
2
+C
1
L
1
+
1
L
2

\

.




A = 0, collect real and imaginary parts and set
them to zero.
e
o
=
1
C(L
1
+L
2
)
At e
o
,
f
=
L
1
L
2
Generally more gain is used to ensure oscillation
with amplitude stabilization.
GS and GD capacitances are
neglected, assume no mutual
coupling between inductors.
Chap 18  53
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Amplitude Stabilization in LC
Oscillators
Inherent nonlinear characteristics of transistors are used to limit
oscillation amplitude. Eg: rectification by JFET gate diode or BJT
baseemitter diode.
In MOS version, diode and R
G
form rectifier to establish negative bias
on gate, capacitors act as rectifier filter.
Practically, onset of oscillation is accompanied by slight shift in Q
point values as oscillator adjusts to limit amplitude.
Chap 18  54
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Crystal Oscillators
Crystal: A piezoelectric device that vibrates
is response to electrical stimulus, can be
modeled electrically by a very high Q (
> 10,000) resonant circuit.
L, C
S
, R represent intrinsic series resonance
path through crystal. C
P
is package
capacitance. Equivalent impedance has series
resonance where C
S
resonates with L and
parallel resonance where L resonates with
series combination of C
S
and C
P
.
Z
C
=
Z
P
Z
S
Z
P
+Z
S
=
1
sC
P
s
2
+s
R
L
+
1
LC
S
s
2
+s
R
L
+
1
LC
T

\

.







C
T
=
C
P
C
S
C
P
+C
S
Below e
S
and above e
P
,
crystal appears capacitive,
between e
S
and e
P
it exhibits
inductive reactance.
Chap 18  55
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Crystal Oscillators: Example
Problem: Find equivalent circuit elements for crystal with given parameters.
Given data: f
S
= 5 MHz, Q = 20,000 R = 50 O, C
P
= 5 pF
Analysis:
L=
RQ
e
S
=
50(20,000)
2t (510
6
)
=31.8 mH
C
S
=
1
e
S
2
L
=
1
10
7
t

\

.


2
(0.0318)
=31.8 fF
f
P
=
1
2t L
C
P
C
S
C
P
+C
S
=
1
2t (31.8mH)(31.6 fF)
f
P
=5.02 MHz
Chap 18  56
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
Crystal Oscillators: Topologies
Colpitts Crystal Oscillator Crystal Oscillator using BJT
Crystal Oscillator using JFET
Crystal Oscillator using CMOS
inverter as gain element.
Chap 18  57
Jaeger/Blalock
3/10/04
Microelectronic Circuit Design
McGrawHill
End of Chpater 18
Chap 18  58