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SEMINAR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
KRITHANJATHRADH . K .M MBA 1ST YEAR

TOPIC

LEARNING

LEARNING
Measurable and relatively permanent change in behavior

through experience, instruction, or study. Whereas individual learning is selective, group learning is essentially political its outcomes depend largely on power playing in the group. Learning itself cannot be measured, but its results can be.

CONCEPT OF LEARNING
Learning is a term frequently used by people in a wide

variety of contexts. Yet despite its diverse use at the academic level, its concept has been recognised in only one way,or at the most two, in which behaviour can be acquired or changed..

NATURE OF LEARNING
Learning involves a change in behaviour,though this

change is not necessarily an improvement over previous behaviour. Learning generally has the connotation of improved behaviour,but bad habits,prejudices,sterotypes,and work restrictions are also learned. The behavioural change must be relatively permanent. Any temporary change in behaviour due to fatigue or any reason is not a part of learning. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur. If reinforcement does not accompany the practice or experience,the behaviour will disappear.

LEARNING & MATURATION


Behavioural changes due to maturation are natural,while

for learning,a person has to make efforts. Changes in behaviour due to maturation are racial,but in the case of learning ,these changes are only in the person who learns. Generally,maturation takes place upto the age of 25 years but a person can go on learning throughout the life.

TYPES OF LEARNING
PERCEPTUAL LEARNING: Ability to learn to recognize

that have been seen before. eg: music

STIMULAS RESPONSE LEARNING: Ability to learn to

perform a particular behaviour when a certain stimuli is present.

MOTOR LEARNING: It is a relatively permanent change resulting from practice or a novel experience in the capability for responding.
RELATIONAL LEARNING: It involves connection between different area of the association

SPATIAL LEARNING: It involves learning about

the relation among many stimuli.

EPISODIC LEARNING: Remembering sequence

of event that we witness.

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING: Learning by

watching and imitating other people. eg. television

COMPONENTS OF LEARNING PROCESS


DRIVE
Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive any strong stimulus that impelsaction. Whithout drive,learning does not take place or,at least,is not discernible because drive arouses an individual and keeps him readly to respond thus it is the basis of motivation.

Cue stimuli
Cue stimuli are any objects existing in the environment as perceived by the individual. It is common to speak of cue stimuli as stimuli or to use the term cue and stimuli interchangeably.

Generalisation
Generalisation occurs when a respons is elicited by a similar but new stimulus. If two stimuli are exactly alike,they will have the same probability of evoking a specified response, but the more dissimilar the stimuli become,the lower will be the probability of evoking the same responses.

Discrimination
Discrimination is opposite of generalisation. This is a process whereby an organism learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus.

Response
The stimulus results in responses. Responsesmay be in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes,familiarity,perception, or other complex phenomena.

Retention
The stability of learned behaviour over time is defined as retention and the converse is forgetting. Some of the learning is retained over a period of time, while other may be forgotten.

FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING


MOTIVATION
Learners motivation is one of the major conditions for learning. As we shall see later in this text , motivation is something that moves a person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.

MENTAL SET
Mental set refers to the preparation for an action, in this context learning. If a person is prepared to act, he can do the things quickly and in no time. Without mental set, learning cannot go smoothly and easily.

PRACTICE
Practice is a very basic external condition of learning and affects all types of learning. The more a person practices, more he absorbs learning contents.

ENVIRONMENT
Environment in which learning process occurs affects learning. Environment here, refers to the situational set up for learning. Environmental factors can either strengthen or weaken the innate ability to achieve and learn.