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Group: Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common

identity. Four Sociological Criteria of a Group: Two or more freely interacting individuals Collective norms Collective goals Common identity
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The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Groups

Tuckmans Five-Stage Theory of Group Development


Forming: Ice breaking stage; low trust; holding back; need for leadership (Orientation) Storming: Power structure is tested; subgroups form (Redefinition) Norming: Questions about power and authority resolved (Coordination) Performing: Attention devoted to solving task problems (Formalization) Adjourning: Work is done; return to independence; a sense of loss (Termination)
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Exercise

Functional Roles Performed by Group Members


Task Roles
Initiator Information seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Elaborator Coordinator Orienter
Evaluator Energizer Procedural technician Recorder
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Description
Suggests new goals or ideas Clarifies key issues Clarifies pertinent values Promotes greater understanding Pulls together ideas and suggestions Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Tests groups accomplishments Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Performs routine duties Performs a group memory function
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Functional Roles Performed by Group Members


(Continued) Maintenance Roles Description
Encourager Harmonizer
Compromiser Gatekeeper Standard setter Commentator Follower
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Fosters group solidarity Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Helps resolve conflict by meeting others half way Encourages all group members to participate Evaluates the quality of group processes Records comments on group processes/dynamics Serves as a passive audience
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Dysfunctional Roles Performed by Group Members


Individual Roles
Avoider
Blocker

Description
Remains apart from others; resists passively Resists stubbornly; negative; returns to rejected issues Continuously jokes and attempts distract group from purpose Manipulates group; others; gains attention Calls attention to self by boasting, bragging, acting superior
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Clown to Dominator interrupts Recognition seeker

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Work Group Size


Group interaction Group cohesiveness Job satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Social loafing Productivity

Group Norms
Norms are shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior

Development of Group Norms


Explicit statements by supervisors or coworkers Critical events in the groups history Primacy Carryover behaviors from past situations

Symptoms of Groupthink
Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Mindguards
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

Preventing Groupthink
Every group member a critical evaluator Avoid rubber-stamp decisions Different groups explore same problems Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts Assign role of devils advocate Rethink a consensus
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998