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Presented by: Mohammed Shoaib Sayam Roy Shraboni Sudhansu

To Know:-

Human Relation approach


Hawthorne Experiment

Neo-Human Relation approach


Douglas McGregor Contributions Rensis Likert Contributions Chris Argyris Contributions Criticism of Neo-Human Relation approach

Difference between Human Relation & Neo-human Relation approach

Human Relations Approach


Human Behaviour rather than organisation structure. Organisation a Social System. Human the most important element in organisation.

Hawthorne Experiment
Carried out at Western Electric Company near Chicago (USA) in November 1924. Analysed by Professor George Elton Mayo (Father of Human Relation Approach) along with his colleagues of Harvard University from 1927-32.

Hawthorne Experiment
Illumination experiment on two groups- Test Group and Control Group.
Test Group Lighting improved, productivity increased. Lighting reduced to twilight, productivity didnt come down as expected. Control Group Lighting unchanged, productivity went up.

Experiment by Professor Mayo and his colleagues Test Group and Control Group of six women each.

Made changes in test group like-shorter working hours, reducing break time, improving physical conditions, friendly supervision.
Test Group productivity went on increasing even if improvements in working condition were withdrawn.

Conclusions of Hawthorne Experiment


Productivity increased due to special attention and emotional chain reaction. Friendly supervision is a motivation for improving performance (Hawthorne Effect). Importance on people and their individual motivations for management of organisations.

Informal groups- major factor in determining attitude and performance of workers.

Neo-human Relations Approach/Behavioural Science


Key contributors were Douglas McGregor, Rensis Likert, Chris Argyris. This approach puts emphasis on motivation, leadership, group dynamics and participative management. Under this approach knowledge is drawn from psychology, sociology, anthropology.

Douglas McGregor Contributions


Described two theories in his book Human side Enterprise , Theory X- traditional assumptions about people. Theory Y- Modern or realistic assumptions about people.

Douglas McGregor Contributions contd..


Theory X
Most people dislike work, and try to avoid it if possible. Most people are not ambitious, they avoid responsibility and prefer to be directed. Most people must be coerced and threatened with punishment before they work. They are selfish and have no concern for organizational objectives.

Theory YPeople work as naturally as they play or take rest. People are self directed and self controlled.

People are committed to organisations objectives when they are rewarded.


People are capable of being innovative in solving organisational problems. People are wise, but their potentials are often under-utilised in organisational conditions.

Rensis Likert Contributions


He compared the management style of high-producing managers with lowproducing managers. Low-producing Managers:Direct employees behaviour by exercising control through authority. Achieve goal through use of authority and reward system. High-producing Managers:Employee Centred and main attention to build effective workgroup with high performance goals. Use different motivational techniques and try to be friendly to subordinates by displaying high degree of trust.

Rensis Likert Contributions contd


He described 4 systems of leadership styles in his books, The Human Organisation, and New Pattern of Management. He believed these leadership styles were ideal and can result in high productivity, low cost and high morale. Exploitative Autocrat- No confidence on subordinate. Benevolent Autocrat- Some confidence on subordinate. Participative- Substantial confidence on subordinate. Democratic- Full Confidence on subordinate.

Chris Argyris Contributions


He found that number of negative feelings were induced in employees by the formal organisation which created failure in the mind of an individual. Thus resulted in formation of informal group with their own norms. Unintended consequences: Obey organisation rules but also exercise initiative. Take a long term view but expect to be measured and judged by your present and recent performance.

Chris Argyris Contributions contd


His findings: A man after attaining maturity sets his own goals and tries to achieve them. An organisation tries to achieve its goals by employing principles of specialization, command and direction. But no attempt was made to correlate the goals of individual and organisation that resulted in unintended consequences.

Criticism of Neo-Human Research Approach : Concepts applied can work universally, whereas in reality it doesnt as environment of each organisation is distinct. Too much importance on personal development and individual rights neglecting the technical and commercial constraints. This approach highly criticises the classical theory, but many of those principles are highly relevant to organisations, even today.

Emphasis on minimising conflict, however conflict can be constructive.

Difference between :-

Human Relation Approach


Importance to individuals, their needs and behaviour at work place. Concerned about inter-personal relationship Studies the role of job satisfaction and morale on organisational goal

Behavioural Science Approach


Importance to group behaviour in organisation Focused on inter-group relationship

Analyses the role of group dynamics and informal organisation within the formal organisation