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What is writing? Types of writing What writer needs to know

Definition
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In A History of Writing, Steven Roger Fischer argues that no one definition of writing can cover all the writing systems that exist and have ever existed. Instead he states that a 'complete writing' system should fulfill all the following criteria: - it must have as its purpose communication; - it must consist of artificial graphic marks on a durable or electronic surface; - it must use marks that relate conventionally to articulate speech (the systematic arrangement of significant vocal sounds) or electronic programming in such a way that communication is achieved.

writing from our own point of view

Writing is one way of recording and communicating different types of information by using sets of visible symbols to represent the sounds of speech.

4 TYPES OF WRITING
Expository

Persuasive
Descriptive Narrative

What is an expository essay? It


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Gives facts. Explains. Gives steps in a process. Presents ideas in logical order or correct sequence.

What are the key words that show it is an expository prompt?


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Most people enjoy some type of music. Think about your favorite type of music and explain why you like that particular type of music. 2. Sometimes even the best drivers can get lost at times. Explain how you would direct a lost man to get back to the interstate highway from your neighborhood. Tell how to make a hamburger.
1.

What is a descriptive essay?


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Sensory images are used to describe what the writer sees, hears, smells, touches, and tastes. It paints a clear description of people, places, objects, or events.

What are the key words that show it is a descriptive prompt?


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1.

Describe your bedroom. Imagine telling someone who has never visited you. There are many tourist spots to visit in Birmingham. Describe your favorite place to take visitors. You may want to tell what you will see, hear, smell and how you feel when you are there.

2.

Tell us what you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel on Christmas morning.

YOU MUST

DESCRIBE OR TELL WHAT A PERSON CAN SEE, HEAR, SMELL, TASTE OR FEEL.

What is a persuasive essay?


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You are asked to prove something. Give reasons why. Present arguments against your reasons. Show them to be false. Take a stand Ask or call for an action.

What are the key words that show its a persuasive prompt?
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1.

2.

3.

Persuade a close friend to donate blood as part of a blood drive that your school is sponsoring for the Red Cross. Some of your kid brothers friends have taken up smoking and want him to start too. Write a convincing letter to your kid brother to not take up this habit. Write a letter to the editor of the newspaper telling why citizens in Birmingham should support a tax increase benefiting the local public schools.

YOU WILL NOTICE THE


WORDS PERSUADE, CONVINCE OR TELL WHY SOMEONE SHOULD DO SOMETHING.

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What is a narrative writing?


Tells a story.

Has chronological order and sequence of events.


Has action. Has conflicts or problems. Has dialogue.

Has characters.
Has a definite beginning, middle and end.

What writer needs to know?

Know the theme


The

writer should know the theme of what he/she is going to write about.

reason of the writing


Writer

needs to identify the reason of his/her writing. Example: to express feelings, to inform, to persuade,

Relevant information of the topic


Previous

knowledge, journals, books, internet, etc Related with the topic

Language used
Writer

must know appropriate language to be used in his/her writing so that the meaning/theme can be conveyed successfully. Wide range of vocabulary

Reader
Writer

must identify the target, to whom he/she

writes.