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Interdependence Over dependence

Counter dependence

Persons behavior vs. Person herself/himself Controllable Vs. Uncontrollable

Specific Vs. General

Data-based Vs. Impressionistic

Timely Vs. Late

Negative with positive Vs. Only negative

Suggestive Vs. Prescriptive

Help Vs. Criticism


Elicit vs. wait Listening and self-Analysis vs. Denial and Rationalization Clarifying vs. Assuming

Passive Behavior
When we are passive, we hold back (do not
express) and fail to present our thoughts and feelings or we express ourselves in a

roundabout way.
Ignore or deny our own needs to satisfy others needs

Assertive Behavior
Assertive approach: express thoughts, feelings and opinions in such a way that the rights of self and others are not infringed upon Respects self but at the same time respects others with whom we are involved Respect for ones needs and rights as well as other s needs and rights

Aggressive Behavior
When we are aggressive , we lash out verbally
or physically, directly in the attempt to overpower/dominate or put them down Ignore others needs to satisfy our own.

The constructive Route

(to shared agreement)
Listen actively
Show others you understand
That they feel strongly What they feel strongly about Why they feel strongly about it Pause to let them respond

Win yourself a hearing

Explain your own feeling Refer to their points Make your points firmly but stay friendly

Work to a joint solution

Seek others ideas Build on others ideas Offer your ideas Construct the solution from everyone's needs

Assertive Behavior: Characteristics

Listening actively Persuasion Coping with criticism Assertive expression (NO attack!) Empathy (view from others frame of reference) Self-awareness (ones own frame of reference)

Assertive Behavior : Components

The skill to Say no; but respects others needs & rights Make request (or ask favors) Express positive AND negative feelings Initiate, continue, and terminate general


Perception is the way we see the world

around us
Is a process by which individuals
Receive, Select, organize and interpret the input
from their senses

Give meaning and order to the world around


Factors / Biases
Projections Perceptual Defense

Mental Set or Perceptual set Halo Effect Beliefs Needs, Wants, Concerns Primacy Effect Recency Effect

Selection Factors Related to Perceiver

Needs and Wants Interests

Tendencies ( Self- Concept)

Trained Incapacity

Selection Factors Related to Stimuli

Size Intensity


Factors Related to Stimuli