Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

# 1

Express in:

## 1 day 103 kW x _______ 120 MW = 120 MW x ________

day day = 5000 kW/hr

1 MW

24 hr

## Exception of rule #1 for Significant Errors up to digit 1&2

Uncertainty notation as Rule #1 0.8 0.1 0.02 Non-zero Digit 8 1 2 Exception of Rule #1 0.13 0.023 Error

30 % 15%

0.003

0.0033

10%

CHAPTER 1:

GRAPH ANALYSIS
ALPH10

PREPARED BY:

OBJECTIVES

## At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

Plot graph correctly Differ between different types of graphs Analyze graph

GRAPHS

Advantages of having data presented in the form of graph: To see the variation of one quantity w.r.t other To determine the average value of a constant in a relationship To reduce random error due to inability of the experimenter to record exact value

1. 2.

3.

## PLOTTING A PROPER GRAPH

1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.
7.

Use of sharp pencil and long ruler Brief, suitable, and sufficient title on the upper part of the graph Label axes with symbol of the physical quantity and its unit. Use scientific notation of prefixes if too large numbers involved Arrows on axes shows increasing in value Suitable scale to sensibly fill the graph paper Points be plotted clearly and accurately Best fit line/ trend line should pass though most of the points or must have balance distribution

TYPES OF GRAPH
1.

Linear Graph
General equation:

From the equation: When x = 0, y = c, c = intercept on y-axis When y = 0, x = -c/m, c/m = intercept on x-axis When c = 0, y = mx, graph pass through origin and y is directly proportional to x

TYPES OF GRAPH
2.

Power Graph
General equation: Where power, n is a positive integer:

2.

10

11

## Power Graph cont..

i.

If n is known:

Linear graph is obtained if y is plotted against x Straight line passing through origin

12

## Power Graph cont..

ii.

If n is to be determined:

## Take logarithms on both sides of the equation

Plot log y against log x to get a linear graph

13

TYPES OF GRAPH
3.

Exponential Graph

14

15

16

## EXPONENTIAL GRAPH CONT..

If k = positive, y increases with x If k = negative, y decreases with x

To obtain a linear relationship, take the natural logarithms of both sides of the general equation:

## For both graphs:

17

TYPES OF GRAPH
4.

Inverse Graph

General equation:

18

i.

If n is known:

19

## INVERSE GRAPH CONT..

i.

If n is to be determined:

Take logarithms of both sides of the general equation A graph of log y against log x will give a straight line

20

GRAPH ANALYSIS
1.

2.

Draw tangent to line to calculate its gradient Extrapolate to find interception value to predict values of the dependent variables beyond the plotted points when independent values are given
i.

Can also find equation for the line, insert the independent variables and solve for the dependent values

3.

## Make conclusion to experiment based on the graph shape

i.
ii.

Verify the relationship between two variables Find specific point value or critical point value
21

22

23