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RECAP IN THE LAST EPISODE

Convert 120 MW/day in kW/hr

Express in:

1 day 103 kW x _______ 120 MW = 120 MW x ________


day day = 5000 kW/hr

1 MW

24 hr

RECAP IN THE LAST EPISODE

Exception of rule #1 for Significant Errors up to digit 1&2


Uncertainty notation as Rule #1 0.8 0.1 0.02 Non-zero Digit 8 1 2 Exception of Rule #1 0.13 0.023 Error

30 % 15%

0.003

0.0033

10%

CHAPTER 1:

GRAPH ANALYSIS
ALPH10

PREPARED BY:

PN SITI FATIMAH SAIPUDDIN U146

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:


Plot graph correctly Differ between different types of graphs Analyze graph

GRAPHS

Advantages of having data presented in the form of graph: To see the variation of one quantity w.r.t other To determine the average value of a constant in a relationship To reduce random error due to inability of the experimenter to record exact value

1. 2.

3.

PLOTTING A PROPER GRAPH


1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.
7.

Use of sharp pencil and long ruler Brief, suitable, and sufficient title on the upper part of the graph Label axes with symbol of the physical quantity and its unit. Use scientific notation of prefixes if too large numbers involved Arrows on axes shows increasing in value Suitable scale to sensibly fill the graph paper Points be plotted clearly and accurately Best fit line/ trend line should pass though most of the points or must have balance distribution

TYPES OF GRAPH
1.

Linear Graph
General equation:

Gradient of a line:

From the equation: When x = 0, y = c, c = intercept on y-axis When y = 0, x = -c/m, c/m = intercept on x-axis When c = 0, y = mx, graph pass through origin and y is directly proportional to x

TYPES OF GRAPH
2.

Power Graph
General equation: Where power, n is a positive integer:

Power Graph cont..

2.

General equation: Power graph cont.. When power, n is a negative integer:

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Power Graph cont..

General equation: When power, n is a fraction between 0 and 1:

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Power Graph cont..


i.

If n is known:

Linear graph is obtained if y is plotted against x Straight line passing through origin

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Power Graph cont..


ii.

If n is to be determined:

Take logarithms on both sides of the equation


Plot log y against log x to get a linear graph

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TYPES OF GRAPH
3.

Exponential Graph

General equation: If x is greater than 1:

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EXPONENTIAL GRAPH CONT..

General equation: If x is less than 1:

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EXPONENTIAL GRAPH CONT..

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EXPONENTIAL GRAPH CONT..


If k = positive, y increases with x If k = negative, y decreases with x

To obtain a linear relationship, take the natural logarithms of both sides of the general equation:

For both graphs:

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TYPES OF GRAPH
4.

Inverse Graph

General equation:

Same as power graph but with negative integer of n

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INVERSE GRAPH CONT..


i.

If n is known:

A linear graph can be obtained by plotting y against 1/xn

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INVERSE GRAPH CONT..


i.

If n is to be determined:

Take logarithms of both sides of the general equation A graph of log y against log x will give a straight line

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GRAPH ANALYSIS
1.

2.

Draw tangent to line to calculate its gradient Extrapolate to find interception value to predict values of the dependent variables beyond the plotted points when independent values are given
i.

Can also find equation for the line, insert the independent variables and solve for the dependent values

3.

Make conclusion to experiment based on the graph shape


i.
ii.

Verify the relationship between two variables Find specific point value or critical point value
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End of GRAPH ANALYSIS

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