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Basic Pilot Training Lesson 5 Formation Flying & Mid-Air Refueling

TRAIN, FIGHT, WIN!


A special thanks goes to the FreeBirds Virtual Fighter Wing for providing the original presentation

SEPT 2011

Version 1.0

Philosophy & Reference Documentation


This Training has been developed in an attempt to increase the skill level of the Falcon 4 pilot. All the subject matter has been laid out to create a natural progression of skill sets from basic to advanced topics. Theory is taught and then put into practice during a training flight. Read the Training Philosophy page on the website for more info.
The training is a continuation of what you learned during Basic Pilot Training Lesson 3. The 20th VFW SOPs are practiced every time we fly so that we can reduce any ambiguity during the transition from the windows desktop to sitting in the cockpit. You are expected to memorize the SOPs and use them. Refer to the Multi-Player SOPs page on the website for the latest SOPs. Our training is designed to be a compliment to all of the documentation that has been established to date. The goal is to fill in the blanks and elaborate on subjects where needed. This means you will need be familiar with the contents of each reference document to complete the training course. It is expected that before or during the basic course you will have read through the documents listed below. Focus on the Falcon 4 and BMS Manuals and the MCH Volume 5 Information References
Falcon 4.0 Manual The Latest BMS Manual All of the documents within the BMS 4.3.2 docs folder. The Mid Life Update Documents On-line play Primas Falcon 4.0 Official Strategy Guide A Private Pilots Manual The 20th VFW Website (http://www.20thvfw.com/) The rest of the World Wide Web, forums, and message boards FM203-97.18 Multi Service Brevity Codes PDF

Basically, read as much as you can get your hands on!

Desired Learning Objectives


To understand and utilize Formation Flying To understand the techniques to successfully perform Mid-Air Refueling To be able to demonstrate knowledge gained in ground school on all of the above topics by in-flight performance of evolutions with an Instructor Pilot Brevity concentration;
Rejoin Abort Anchor (ed) Bingo Breakaway Button Cease Closing

Formation Integrity
Formation Integrity can only be maintained when the flight lead has complete knowledge and control of the actions of each flight member Flight members must maintain formation until ordered or approved otherwise Formation discipline begins with good communication that is understood by the entire flight The formation provides the basis for the Mutual Support Contract
The Mutual Support Contract provides for synergistic Situational Awareness (SA) because each flight member contributes to the overall SA of the flight Positional awareness must be maintained, overriding even fuel consumption considerations A sound MS contract should provide
Position awareness of other flight members Early position awareness of the threat and the attack axis Communication of offensive and defensive information to the flight Targeting and weapons employment prior to threat attack The ability to prosecute the attack and/or disengage

The integrity of the formation is paramount! Do whatever it takes to get into and stay in position!
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Formation Departures
Formation Take Off
Formation takeoffs will be conducted for Air shows ONLY. Aircraft will taxi onto the active runway with Lead taking the downwind side, Two on the upwind side, Three aligning behind Lead and Four behind Two. Lead will await the radio call from the each formation member taking the active and when in position. The in position, brakes on call will indicate the formation is ready to commence take off roll. Lead will call Run em up. All pilots advance throttle to 80%, check for warning lights and throttle back to idle. If no problems call in flight sequence, Good jet. If aborting advise (flight position # aborting) The Formation Lead shall then radio a countdown from 3 (3 -2-1-mark). Upon mark, the formation will commence takeoff roll. Formation takeoffs should not be conducted when weather conditions are below 1000 ft. ceiling and 1 mile visibility. When weather is below these minimums, takeoffs should be spaced 30 seconds apart from the leads brake release. Join up shall be accomplished above the ceiling under VRF flight conditions. When weather is above these minimums, formation takeoffs will be conducted at the discretion of the formation leader.

Formation Join Up
After takeoff, Lead shall intercept the outbound course Formation members will fly to intercept the Lead aircraft with the intent of rejoining formation as a priority The first element wingman (number 2) to join onto Leads left side The second element lead (number 3) shall intercept to join the formation at Leads righy side Lead shall deploy smoke and hold 350 knots airspeed until notified by formation members that they have joined formation Upon receiving the last in formation radio messages, Lead will call out the new airspeed, altitude and if necessary, heading

Formation Takeoffs
Formation Takeoffs: 4-ship lineup, 2-Ship takeoff is standard
Lead lines up on DOWNWIND side of runway Two lines up on UPWIND side of runway
nose wheel even with Leads main gear ensure proper wingtip clearance

Three lines up behind Lead by 150 ft (2 plane lengths) Four lines up on Three in same position as Two is on Lead On Leads mark, the first element goes to full afterburner
Flying Formation begins at brake release Two (and Four) will strive to stay in formation with their respective lead aircraft

Lead 2 150 150 3 4


6

Lead will direct the flight into rejoin once 3 and 4 get airborne
Flight members shall rejoin and announce In Position To aid the rejoin:
Set your radar to RWS, TWS, or ACM as appropriate, antenna elevation slightly up Understand the briefed departure route and push point location

Formation Responsibilities
Responsibilities: The flight lead assigns responsibilities for each flight member. Dividing responsibilities ensures each pilot has a manageable number of tasks to perform. Flight member normal responsibilities are: Lead (Flight Lead)
Primary planner and decision maker Primary navigation Radar lookout Visual lookout for mutual support of Two Primary engaged fighter, if practical.

Two (Flight Leads Wingman)


Maintain formation position Visual lookout Mutual support of Lead Navigation position awareness Radar awareness as other responsibilities allow

Responsibilities Three (2nd Element Lead)


Mutual support of the entire flight Support Lead Maintain support position for Lead Element Secondary planner, alternate decision maker Secondary navigation Secondary radar monitor Visual lookout for Four Secondary engaged fighter if practical

Four (2nd Element Wingman)


Maintain formation position Visual lookout for the flight Mutual support of Three Navigation position awareness Radar awareness as previous responsibilities allow 7

Lookout Responsibilities
Visual Cross Checks
It is the responsibility of all flight members to practice good visual cross checks Near Rocks/Check Six/Far Rocks Pattern
Near Rocks (Sector 1)
Those dangers, straight ahead, that could cause problems in the next 10-15 seconds

1A 3

Check Six (Sector 2)


A check of your teams rear position to catch an ambush

Far Rocks (Sectors 1A, 3 and 4)


Those dangers that could affect your mission out to the extent you can see

2 OClock

4
2

Formation Flying & Engagement Procedures


Formation Engagement Procedures
Lead will direct wingman and element engagement procedures and specify targets Lead will have primary responsibility to communicate with AWACS for traffic and target information Lead will have primary responsibility to sort out and track bandits or enemy ground troops on radar Lead will communicate the position of bandits and their heading, altitude, and airspeed, to flight members Formation members will confirm and follow Leads directions upon receiving them via radio

Formation Engagement Responsibilities


Engagement (Air to Air)
The air to air engagement with a two-ship element will follow the standard tactical contract of responsibilities (Mutual Support Contract). Upon engaging, the Lead/Wingman relationship will be dropped and roles will revert to those of Engaged and Supporting in the Mutual Support Contract Engaged Fighters Responsibilities
The primary responsibility of the engaged fighter is to kill the bandit as quickly as possible If an immediate kill is not possible because of weapon parameter restrictions, the responsibility is to fly the engaged fighter to a point where weapons can be utilized and kill the bandit in the most expedient manner possible If at any time the engaged fighter loses the positional advantage, he will call in the supporting fighter and fly to take any positional advantage away from the bandit The engaged fighter also bears the responsibility to keep the bandit in sight

Supporting Fighters Responsibilities


The supporting fighter has the responsibility to maneuver in such a manner as to keep both the engaged fighter and the bandit in sight The supporting fighter will under no circumstances maneuver to gain positional advantage on the bandit unless directed into the fight by the engaged fighter, who at that point in time will declare the change in roles and become the supporting fighter To decrease the odds of mid-air collisions during a close-in dogfight, there will only be a single engaged and a single supporting fighter at any point in time.

The responsibilities of who is engaged and who is supporting must be clearly communicated and clearly understood at all times by both fighters throughout the entire engagement.
10

Formation Flying Cockpit Angular Clues


Use these in-cockpit clues to help you maintain positional and situational awareness

11

Two Ship (Single Element) Wedge Formation


Two Ship Wedge
Wing 30 to 60 aft of Leads 3-9 line 4000 to 6000 range separation Both aircraft at same altitude

3-9 Line

Advantages
Excellent coverage of Leads 6 oclock and free maneuver room

Disadvantages
Poor 6 oclock coverage for wingman and change of lead difficult to execute

Graphics from MCM 11-F16 Vol 5

12

Two Ship (Single Element) Fighting Wing Formation


Fighting Wing
Wing flies in a cone 30 to 70 aft of Leads 6 oclock 500 to 3000 range/altitude separation

Advantages
Good for maintaining integrity in poor weather/terrain; good heads down formation

Disadvantages
Poor 6 oclock coverage and easy detection of formation by one threat

13

Two Ship (Single Element) Line Abreast Formation


Two Ship Line Abreast
Wing 0 to 20 aft of lead 5000 altitude separation 6000ft to 9000ft range separation Also known as Combat Spread Formation
Used for Tactical Formation Flying

14

Three Ship 3-Ship Vic Formation


Responsibilities must be altered for a three ship:
Number One
Navigation, then radar and visual lookout.

Number Two
Visual and radar lookout, back-up navigation.

Number Three
Visual, then radar lookout.

Three Ship Formations:


Vic
Basically, an Arrowhead without the 2 ship as shown here to the right

Wedge
Same as a 4 ship Wedge without the 4 ship

Fluid 3
Same as a Fluid Four but with 1 ship missing

If the three-ship is caused by one aircraft falling out from a briefed four-ship
The following position changes should be followed:
If Lead falls out, Number Three assumes Lead and Number Two moves to Line Abreast If Number Three falls out, Number Four moves up to Line Abreast If Number Two or Four fall out, there are no changes.

Three-Ship Spread
This is the same as a Spread Four with 1 ship missing Roles and responsibilities caused by fall out from a four-ship are the same as for Fluid 3 formation.

15

Four Ship (Dual Element) Finger Four Formation


Finger Four Formation
The 20th VFW default formation, always fly this formation where no specific formation is briefed 2 flies at the 8 o'clock of the Flight Lead 3 flies at 4 o'clock of the Flight Lead 4 flies at the 4 oclock of the Second Element Lead (the #3 jet)

Lead

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

The Finger Four Formation


16

Finger Four No. 3 In Position


Both 3 and 4s sight picture looks like this. Use small control inputs to maintain sight picture

Virtual view allows the HUD and Work To keep This Orientation surrounding airspace to be Constant viewed concurrently Get close enough to see platform of the lead jet to aid recognition of changes in position

20 Angular Reference Point

17

Finger Four No. 2 and 1 In Position

18

Four Ship (Dual Element) Arrowhead Formation


Arrowhead
Lead element flies wedge 2nd Element flies Line Abreast 2nd Element offset and 1.5 - 3 Nm from Lead Advantages
Arrowhead makes it easier for Leads Wingie to maneuver, freeing him for more lookout duties These formations provide excellent mutual support and lookout The rear Element is positioned to engage an adversary making a stern conversion on the lead element Difficult to visually acquire the entire flight Element spacing for an attack is built into the formation

Disadvantages
Or this derivative Formations are difficult to fly in poor visibility and rugged terrain Trailing Element may be momentarily mistaken as a threat, especially if staggered too much off to one side

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Four Ship (Dual Element) Box & Offset Box Formation


Box and Offset Box
Each element flies a two ship line abreast Position can be modified by Lead to include 4000 to 12,000 altitude separation between Elements 6000 to 9000 range separation between element members Element separation is 1.5 - 3 Nm Box is offset to allow for easier visual tracking of lead element

Advantages
These formations provide excellent mutual support and lookout The rear Element is positioned to engage an adversary making a stern conversion on the lead element Difficult to visually acquire the entire flight Element spacing for an attack is built into the formation

Disadvantages
Formations are difficult to fly in poor visibility and rugged terrain Trailing Element may be momentarily mistaken as a threat, especially if staggered too much off to one side

20

Four Ship (Dual Element) 4-Ship Wedge Formation


Four Ship Wedge:
Each Element flies 2 ship wedge 2nd Element is 1.5 -3 Nm from Lead, and offset Number Three can see and fly off of Lead Number Four flies off of Number Three

Advantages:
Very offensive for air-to-air threats forward of the 3/9 line. Inexperienced Wingmen may find it easier to maintain a visual on lead and stay in formation. The formation permits four aircraft to maintain flight integrity under marginal weather or extremely rugged terrain conditions.

Or this derivative

Disadvantages:
Six o'clock lookout may be poor. Formation easily detected by single threat. The defensive maneuvering flexibility of the flight is very limited. Number Two must be disciplined and fly no further than 6,000 feet from lead to avoid conflict with trailing element. (MCM 11-F16 Vol5)
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Four Ship (Dual Element) Spread Four Formation

Spread Four:
Element Leaders fly line abreast and Wingmen fly a relaxed line abreast/ two ship wdge on their element Leaders Element Leaders use fluid maneuvering and are responsible for deconflicting their Elements if crossing the other Elements 6 oclock

Advantages
Difficult for an adversary to visually acquire the entire flight at once Firepower is maximized for BVR weapons employment

Disadvantages
Maneuvering is difficult if the line abreast position is maintained Very difficult for Wingmen to fly at low altitude

Or this derivative
22

Four Ship (Dual Element) Res Cell Formation

Res Cell:
Element Leaders fly line abreast and Wingmen fly tight (closed up) wedge to reduce the number of aircraft detected by radar Element Leaders use fluid maneuvering and are responsible for deconflicting their Elements if crossing the other Elements 6 oclock

Advantages
Difficult for an adversary to know how many aircraft make up the flight

Disadvantages
Element maneuvering is difficult due to line abreast formation

23

Four Ship (Dual Element) Trail Formation


Trail:
Element Leaders fly line astern and two-ship wedge on their element Leaders Element Leaders use fluid maneuvering and are responsible for deconflicting their Elements if crossing the other Elements 6 oclock

Advantages
Difficult for an adversary to visually acquire the entire flight at once Lead element has 6 oclock position covered Second element is hard to detect with sufficient spacing Second element has time de-confliction for engagements Second element can keep first element on radar for proper positioning

Disadvantages
Second element has poor 6 oclock position coverage Second element needs lateral separation before BVR engagement

24

Four Ship (Dual Element) Fluid Four Formation

Fluid Four
Element Leaders fly line abreast and wingmen fly Fighting Wing on their Element Lead Element Leaders are responsible for deconflicting their Elements if crossing the other Elements 6 oclock

Advantages
Inexperienced Wingmen are kept close for ease of maneuvering Four-ship maneuverability is good Formation provides concentration of force Easily converts to three-ship if one aircraft falls out

Disadvantages
Adversary can acquire all four aircraft Defensive maneuvering rapidly becomes confusing due to the proximity of aircraft Cumbersome to maneuver at low altitude in rough terrain

25

Stack and Ladder Formation


Stack Formation
Advantages
Good Altitude coverage for enemy aircraft Four-ship maneuverability is good Formation provides concentration of force for air-to-air Easily converts to three-ship if one aircraft falls out Hard to detect number of aircraft Falcon11

Disadvantages
Difficult to fly and stay in formation Defensive maneuvering rapidly becomes confusing due to the proximity of aircraft Cumbersome to maneuver at low altitude in rough terrain Difficult to provide mutual support Limited azimuth radar coverage

Ladder
Advantages
Altitude difference allows for de-confliction for air-toground engagements Causes problems for air defenses during air-to-ground engagements Good mutual support

Disadvantages
Limited azimuth radar coverage Unable to fly NOE due to vertical separation

26

Tactical Formation Flying Defined


Tactical Formation (TacForm)
What Is TacForm?
Critical tool for maintaining mutual support
Communication is key!

Basic building block skill that all tactical pilots must master The less time and effort required by the Wingman to hold position the more time they have to develop SA, keep an eye out and kill the adversary TacForm is not the mission objective but a tool to help carry out missions Tactical Formation Flying, like all flight, is fluidit is changing all the time

Why Use TacForm?


Online fliers can be quickly separated from their Leads Often an undue amount of effort is required to get a Wingman into formation and keep him there Understanding TacForm will allow a better feel for geometry and engaged maneuvering Because its fun and rewarding to be able to maintain support for each other, and coordinate our actions Should be practiced to the point where it becomes second nature which then allows a combat pilot to concentrate on his first priority, engaging the enemy

27

Tactical Formation Flying Execution


How to Execute TacForm Flying:
Always flown by two jets (wingman) in Combat Spread (Line Abreast) Formation All pilots must fly the agreed upon heading and airspeed Fly at a Tactical Airspeed
About 350-450 KIAS Flying at slow airspeeds is tactically unsound

Lead is critical to ensuring the formation is maintainable Lead must fly smoothly and precisely, and be as informative as possible
Inform flight of critical information, like changes in heading, airspeed, and altitude

Lead must fly the jet on course and at the designated airspeed
Heading and airspeed control will be critical and make the wingmens job easier

Leads good flying will reduce Wingmans time spent looking at lead and striving for position Wingman must take advantage of geometry and change sides and use altitude as he chooses to allow a shorter and quicker path to the proper position Wingmans job is to strive to be in formation no matter what happens Wingman must learn not to wait to roll out of a turn to see if hes in position, but to anticipate errors and make corrections during turns to arrive in position Simple join-ups, climbs, descents and cruise are not TacForm maneuvers The 90 position is desirable as it provides each aircraft in the section the ability to use the available turning room (3/4 -1.5 Nm) to turn into any attacker that threatens the other aircraft as well as providing optimal visual coverage and good offensive fire power spread

Use MIL Power (Buster) and 4 G for ALL Turns as a standard


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Tactical Formation: How To


Combat Spread (Line Abreast)
Two jets positioned 1-2 turn radii from the Leads 3 or 9 oclock position (90 bearing) Advantages
Balance between offensive potential, ease of maneuverability and defensive properties Allows a section to:
Check blind spots Direct their jets at a threat quickly Maintain unobstructed ability to launch at targets downrange Bring your nose to bear on a bandit closing on Leads six oclock and vice versa

Strive for the 90 position


It provides each aircraft in the section the ability to use the available turning room (3/4 -1.5 Nm) to turn into any attacker that threatens the other aircraft as well as providing optimal visual coverage and good offensive fire power spread

The higher/faster the formation is flying, the greater the distance needed between lead and wingman
True airspeed is greater and available sustained G is lower resulting in larger turn radii

Wingman altitude advantage is desirable to provide more energy than lead Pilots should visually check their six and their side of the formation Upon completing turns, pilots shall check each others six

29

Flying As Lead Of A TacForm Element


Leading the Element
Lead should strive for no more than about 3-5 deviation in heading and less than 10 knots in airspeed Lead must always consider his Wingmen:
Call Afterburner and wait for Wingman to respond before selecting AB Prevent the Wingman getting Sucked, or stuck behind the 3-9 Line unable to get back into position Avoid selecting idle to keep from forcing the Wingman to an Acute bearing in front of the 3-9 Line (90 bearing ) Be aware that the Wingman may need to fly slightly aft (approaching 30-45 or echelon) to simplify the workload May call the new heading on every maneuver until the Wingman gets good at it All TacForm turns are executed on the wingmans reply Two If the Wingy is grossly out of position, help out by briefly altering airspeed TAC turns are normally 90 but can be 90 30
Lead would say: Cowboy 2 TAC left Turn would be made to a 180 heading, 90 left of 270, the original heading

Other than 90 should contain a new heading in the call for the turn
For example: If lead is heading 270 and desires a non 90 degree turn, Lead would say: Cowboy 2, TAC Left 200

30

Flying As Wingman Of A TacForm Element


Flying as Wingman
Try to avoid using afterburner, but do whatever is required to stay in formation All TacForm turns are executed on the Wingmans reply Two As Wingman, think ahead and get to correcting immediately Use Bearing, Distance, Altitude (BDA)
Prioritize Bearing first
Use pitch attitude and throttle to achieve the correct 90 (3 or 9 oclock) bearing

Temporarily accept a change in Distance and/or Altitude in order to expedite correct Bearing

If You Get Sucked


Go nose low (zero G), increase power, and accelerate, trading altitude for airspeed rather than getting sucked or taking an undue amount of time correcting bearing errors
Turn back onto bearing As the bearing approaches, convert your excess airspeed back to altitude and match airspeeds and throttle settings with the Lead

If You Obtain An Acute bearing (ahead of 3-9 Line)


Use S-turns to correct:
Turn about 30-60 away from Lead followed by a turn back to original heading This will decrease your down range travel relative to Lead who is flying straight down range and force lead to move forward on you as you move back towards the correct bearing Adjust magnitude of turn and amount of delay before turning back accordingly

The wingman will now be split wider than desired but at the correct bearing Alternate S-turns away from and into Lead to assist with Split Distance Strive for the 90 position Utilize the 30-45 aft of the 3-9 line to simplify the workload

31

TacForm Turns
Tactical Turns
Tactical turns are the heart of TacForm flying Typically a turn which changes the heading of the section by 90 Five Types
Check Shackle Delayed Hook (180) Cross (180)

Flown at MIL Power Setting


If at high altitudes or very with heavy/high drag factor jets, afterburner may be used

Flown with sustained energy


Completed without airspeed or significant altitude loss by the section
Use G and AOA to maintain airspeed

Climbs and descents are typically avoided Manage airspeed with use of G and AOA throughout the turn
If getting fast:
Increase G and/or AOA to decelerate to target speed

If getting slow:
Reduce G and/or AOA to increase speed

32

TacForm Check Turns


Check Turns, 10-30
Lead turns to new heading while maintaining airspeed and altitude and Wingman reacts and regains position If Turn Is Into Wingman:
Tendency is to create an acute bearing
S-turn away 45-60 more than the new heading followed by a turn back into the lead and adjust as necessary for correct bearing, then distance, then altitude

Check turns away from Wingman will normally cause a sucked condition
Get nose down and turn to the new heading while accelerating Obtain 50-150 knots excess and drive back to the bearing, trading the excess airspeed for altitude. This will often put him tight and once on bearing he can make a 10-15 turn away to obtain correct split

A heading will be called out Cowboy 22, check left 210 Any turn greater than 30 should be a modified TacForm Turn
33

TacForm Shackle
Shackle
Called that because it looks like a shackle of a chain Used to:
Swap sides Check sixes Redress Formation if the Wingy is excessively acute or sucked Change heading

Call: Cowboy 2, shackle or Cowboy 2, shackle 210 Both fighters commence turn into each other for 45 of turn, then go wings level Upon crossing flight paths, commence turn back to original heading
Note how long from going wings level to the pass and delay the turn back to original heading for that amount of time

If Wingman is acute:
Lead will turn enough to swap sides while the Wingman turns more than 45 in an aggressive S-turn to stop his downrange travel and try to get back aft to the bearing

If Wingman is sucked:
Lead will turn while the Wingy flies straight ahead, going down range and making up for being sucked

In general:
The Wingman in front should turn more than normal (50-70) The Wingman behind should turn just enough to get on the other side of the guy out in front

34

TacForm Delayed Turns


Delayed Tactical Turns
One fighter turning while the other delays and then turns Two types:
Turns into the wingman Turns away from the wingman

Lead initiates all turns, but Lead will not always turn first
The Outside Jet (the jet that the section will be turning away from) will always turn first

TAC turns are normally 90 but can be 90 30


Lead would say: Cowboy 2 TAC left Turn would be made to a 180 heading, 90 left of 270, the original heading

Wingman Split Right, Lead desires a 90 left turn (away from the wingman)
If Lead were to turn first, wingman is placed into trail position, which is not desirable Wing will turn first and after a delay lead will follow The delay is 1-3 seconds and is often hard to see
Use the Look Closer (l) View The Wingman turning first (Outside Jet) can make a call prompting the other Wingman to turn until that pilot gets comfortable with the timing

If Inside Jet (second to turn) continually rolls out acute (in front of the 90 bearing on lead)
Delay longer

If Inside Jet (second to turn) continually ends up sucked when the maneuver is completed
Turn Earlier or Pull more G

Once on the new heading wingman maneuvers to regain correct position

Wingman Split Left, Lead desires a 90 left turn (Into the wingman)
Lead Turns first and wingman will follow when leads nose passes through wingmans flightpath

35

TacForm Delayed 90 Turn


Used Only When In Line Abreast Formation Use MIL Power (Buster) and 4 G for all turns Lead initiates all turns (with TAC right or left call) At low altitude, Wingman Never stacks lower than the Lead TAC turns are normally 90 but can be 90 30
Lead would say: Cowboy 2 TAC left Turn would be made to a 180 heading, 90 left of 270, the original heading

Other than 90 should contain a new heading in the call for the turn
For example: If lead is heading 270 and desires a non 90 degree turn, Lead would say: Cowboy 2, TAC Left 200

36

TacForm Delayed 45 Turn

Other than 90 should contain a new heading in the call for the turn or specify amount of turn
For example: If lead is heading 270 and desires a non 90 degree turn, Lead would say: Cowboy 2, TAC Left 200
37

TacForm Hook Turns


Hook Turns
An engaging type turn 180 30 Same as a Tac Turn but both fighters turn simultaneously and in the same direction for 180 Maintain the briefed airspeed and altitude using MIL power and G to avoid airspeed changes The wingman must regain a tally early on and correct for any incorrect position Cowboy 2, Hook LeftTwo (If not 180 add a heading to the call)

38

TacForm Cross Turns


Lead Calls Cross Turn
Wingman deconflicts by flying high

Used Only When In Line Abreast Formation Use MIL Power (Buster) and 4 G for ALL Turns LEAD initiates ALL turns At low altitude, Wingman NEVER stacks lower than the LEAD
Turns of 180 Used when an immediate threat is found in the rear quadrant AB is used and the nose is placed above or below the horizon to maintain tactical airspeed for best turn Both fighters turn at the same time and maintain airspeed with pitch attitude while pulling max G The turn is made into each other with the wingman passing over the top of lead and both rolling out on a reciprocal heading in spread Cowboy 2, Cross turn If a turn other than 180 is desired, add a heading to the call
39

Formation Egress & Landing


Formation Egress
Egress shall be flown in accordance with formation procedures with lead calling the altitude, airspeed and heading to follow Flight members will maintain position on lead Lead will direct engagements on egress as required to fit the tactical situation

Formation Landing
Formation landing will be conducted at the discretion of the formation lead Weather requirements
The field will be under VFR conditions for an overhead approach Straight in approaches may be flown in any weather The formation lead will determine spacing requirements for landing when the weather is below a ceiling of 100 feet and visibility of mile or less

Aircraft status
All aircraft landing according for these procedures will be without any caution lights as a result of combat damage or system failures Any warning lights shall require the pilot to declare an emergency landing with the tower and land single ship

40

Straight-In Formation Approach Procedures


Straight-in Approach Procedures
Lead will line up for a Straight-in Approach using the most expedient means necessary to align with the landing runway course at 10 Nm from landing steerpoint. This should not require any high-G turns for alignment at low speed or altitude Lead will fly at no less than 2000 feet AGL, 250 knots IAS to the airfield When stable at the altitude and airspeed, Lead will notify wingmen Once aligned with the runway, lead will fly 250 knots airspeed with the flight path marker spotted on the runway over-run area 500 ft. past the threshold At Short Final (10-5 miles)
The Lead pilot will fly at 2000 feet 250 knots until five (5) miles from the landing steerpoint Upon reaching the five-mile point, landing gear will be lowered and the aircraft will transition from 250 knots to landing attitude Lead will touchdown on the downwind side of the runway, and when practical for safety considerations, land long and carry speed through to the end of the runway Wingmen will land on upwind sides of the runway spacing behind Lead so that collisions of aircraft are avoided

41

Overhead Formation Approach Procedures


Overhead Approach Procedures (refer to Lesson 2 for the graphic)
Lead communicates Overhead Approach Procedures will be used prior to 10 mile initial Lead indicates left or right break and aligns formation in echelon on the opposite wing from the break Lead aligns the flight on 10 Nm initial, which is the landing runway heading at 350 knots IAS, 1500 feet AGL Lead will commence a mid-field break turn
The break will be communicated to wingmen via a radio call The break turn will be flown at 60 degrees of bank, 6Gs The break will be a level turn with decreasing airspeed and 180 of turn Roll out of the break turn will be at 180 from runway heading, 1500 ft AGL, 220 knots IAS (on downwind). Fight members will fly the downwind leg past the end of the runway for a distance of to mile Fight members will extend the landing gear upon flying abeam the approach runway numbers The turn to final will be communicated to the formation via a radio call The final turn shall be flown at constant bank and turn radius as required to roll out onto short final aligned with the runway at not less than 500 feet AGL Upon rolling out on short final, deploy the speed brake (if not already deployed) and reach landing attitude

Upon hearing Leads break call, Wingman #2 will count four (4) seconds and commence break Each subsequent Wingman will wait for the break call from the proceeding Wingman, count four (4) seconds and initiate the call and break Each formation member will provide adequate spacing from the proceeding aircraft in formation Lead will touchdown on downwind side of the runway
When practical for safety considerations, land long and carry speed through to the end of the runway

Wingmen will land on alternating sides of runway utilizing safe spacing behind lead
42

Mid-Air Refueling: Finding the Tanker


Mode: TR or AA/TR

Scratchpad

Conventional Wisdom: Refueling takes good hands and nerves of steel , Nah Its just flying Formation with another jet! Finding the tanker:
Up Front Controls:
Check that the CNI knob is in UFC Query AWACS for the bearing and TACAN channel for the tanker Select T-ILS on the ICP to call up the TACAN DED Page Set the TACAN channel for the tanker. Key it in to the scratchpad using the ICP keypad and then ICP ENTR
Hint: If you dont know the tankers channel, start with 126 and work backwards

TACAN Band: X or Y 0 and ENTR will switch Bands from X to Y

T-ILS Button 1

Press the DCS SEQ to switch modes from TR to AA/TR Use the DCS to get to the TACAN scratchpad and key in ICP 0, then ICP ENTR to switch Band from X to Y
Youre set correctly when the HSI activates (no distance error flag)

Dial in the approximate course on the HSI Line up the Course Arrow with the Red Bearing Pointer Course Error Flag is set because you are tracking a moving target

Backup Controls:
Set the CNI knob to backup Query AWACS for the bearing and TACAN channel for the tanker Dial the tanker frequency into the TACAN channel selector Dial in the approximate course on the HSI Line up the Course Arrow with the Red Bearing Pointer Course Error Flag is set because you are tracking a moving target

Use DCS SEQ to switch Modes

43

Mid-Air Refueling: Communicating and Approach


Approaching the tanker
Verify Master Arm switch in Off or Simulate Obtain a radar lock on the tanker
Gives you info on the tanker at all times
course Speed altitude closure rate

The tanker may call buddy spike

Switch to ACM Vertical radar mode when within 10 Nm Set DED to Bingo page,
allows you to monitor fuel flow when connected.

Within 10 Nm of the tanker


Notify him of your intent Request Fuel (y 1)
Always start your refueling evolution with this call The tanker will fly a racetrack pattern normally 100nm in length Get close to the tanker before you make this call

Open the refueling door just prior to making the ready to Take Fuel call.

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Mid-Air Refueling: Communicating and Approach


Call Flight to Echelon Left Formation Flight lead (generally) calls the tanker for gas. The tanker clears #1 to the pre-contact position. The tanker will clear #1 to contact position once hes stabilized in pre-contact. Once topped off or no more fuel is desired (manual disconnect), pilot calls Done with y-3 command, drops the nose and moves off to the right.
(If the pilot wants more fuel after a manual disconnect, call tanker with y-2. Upon completion, call done. )The pilot moves to the reform area.

DO NOT PULL THE THROTTLE BACK TO DISCONNECT FROM THE TANKER.

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Mid-Air Refueling: Approach [Contd]

Closure Rate (11 kts) Target Speed (304 Kts) Target Course (032 T)
o

FPM on 0 Pitch line

Target Aspect (0)

Range to tanker (tens of feet) 013 x 10 ft = 130 ft

Master Arm OFF

Fuel Flow Rate

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Mid-Air Refueling: Pre-Contact Position


Begin closing the tanker from his 6 oclock with 10 knots of closure for every 1000 of range to the target
Example:
At 1 Nm (6000) you should have about 60 kts of overtake speed advantage over the tanker

Gradually decrease speed as you close As you close, you can switch to 10 x 60 ACM radar mode to assist maintaining lock

Pre-contact Position: Stabilize 50 feet behind and 50 feet below the boom
Level Steady Select RF Inhibit (nose cold) Communicate Ready to take fuel call (y 2)

KC 135

Call Ready to Fuel (y 2)


At this point the direction lights will activate.

KC 10

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Mid-Air Refueling: The Connection


Increase overtake to walking speed
1-3 knots, slowly creep into position Keep checking closure rate Fly beyond the boom

Maintain altitude by keeping the FPM on the 0 pitch (horizon) line


Do not fly off the tanker or boom
The Tanker and Boom are moving independently - the Boom Operator flies the boom to connect to you

Listen to the boom operators calls Watch the director lights to get into position The lights tell you where to go, NOT where you are now. Get the right sight picture in your canopy Use the Forward Up 2D Cockpit view to align the tanker just above the upper rim of the HUD and drive until the boomer connects to you

Fuel flow rate is one check you can use to verify your at a constant closure rate Make only minute corrections with the stick and throttle. AdjustWatch... Dont overreact! Be patient!
You dont connect to the tanker, the tanker connects to YOU!
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Mid-Air Refueling: Refueling and Disconnects


Refueling and Disconnects
If a disconnect occurs:
Boom operator may reconnect immediately again Remember: Hands Off! No sudden moves! If no reconnection, make small adjustments to work back into position using lights and boom operators calls If reconnection does not occur and the picture starts to fall apart:
Reduce throttle a little Reposition at the Pre-contact Position

Refueling takes several minutes in realistic refueling mode, depending on your fuel state and tank configuration

When topped off, the tanker will automatically disconnect


Carefully push the nose down to gain altitude separation Move to the right and climb to position off the tankers right wing

Communicate Done Refueling (y 3)


Releases tanker to refuel other aircraft

If Wingmen need to refuel, take station on tankers left wing

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Mid-Air Refueling: Contact

Too High - Move Down OK Up/Down Too Low - Move Up

Too Far Aft - Move Forward OK Fwd/AFT Too Far Fwd - Move Aft

Down/Up Directors

Forward/Aft Directors Centerline of Tanker

KC-135s can only offer boom operator calls for lineup - No Director lights

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Mid-Air Refueling: The Reward

The reward for patience is


more gas
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Normal Fuelling Pattern

Jan 2004

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Quick Flow Refueling Procedures


Quick Flow Refuelling is conducted to reduce the time required for a flight to fuel.
The major difference between Quick Flow and Normal refuelling procedures is the On Deck position as shown in the diagram below. DO NOT PULL THE THROTTLE BACK TO DISCONNECT FROM THE TANKER.

Normal Refuelling

Quick Flow

Jan 2004

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http://freebirdswing.org

Mid-Air Refueling: Multiplayer Considerations


When flying in Multi-Player refuel using the following procedure: 1. The Lead makes the request for fuel (Y 1). He should make the call when the entire flight are all within 10 miles of the tanker. 2. Calls outside of 10 miles will be answered either by the tanker with an Unable call or by AWACS with information for AA TACAN, bearing and distance to the Tanker). 3. Once each pilot is fueled it is imperative that he call off the tanker (Y3) to allow refueling clearance for other pilots/flight to refuel.

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Lesson Summary
You should now understand the reasons for formation flight
Understand how to
Fly in formation through various flight maneuvers Switch into different formations Get into position quickly Make the In Position call Perform the standard departure technique

You should now understand the need and techniques to integrate cockpit operations with visual and radar search You should now be aware of the techniques used to perform Mid-Air Refueling You should now be very comfortable withy comms and using brevity

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Flight School
Demonstrate
Flying in formation through various flight maneuvers Switching into different formations Getting into position quickly Making the In Position call That you can integrate cockpit operations with visual and radar searches The techniques used to perform Mid-Air Refueling That you can use brevity and proper comms

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