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LEARNING THEORIES AND PROCESSES

The humanistic approach and constructivist point of views on learning, and their application in the classroom

# What is Humanistic approach? # Objectives of T.H.A # Principles of T.H.A # Applications in the classroom # Contributors to the growth of humanistic education # Constructivists

# Constructivist point of view on learning


# What is constructivism? # Constructivist theories

DEFINITION
HUMANISM APPROACH a method of beliefs concerned with the needs of people and not with the religious ideas a method of doing something or dealing with the problem

HUMANISTIC APPROACH A method of doing something that concerned with the needs of people

The basic objectives of humanistic approach in education are to encourage students to :


Be self-directed and independent

Take responsibility for their learning


Be creative and interested in the arts

Be curious about the world around them

There are 5 principles of Humanistic Approach in


education (i) Self-direction (ii) Wanting and knowing how to learn (iii)Self evaluation

(iv)The importance of feelings


(v) Freedom from threat

# Students can choose what they want to learn


# The teachers should not interfere or determining students decision

# Let the students to initiate the activity they want


and then ask teachers simply to provide information and equipments for them to use in their activity.

how to learn

# Learning how to learn is more important than


acquiring factual knowledge # Teachers can play their role by helping the students

learn how to learn


# Should emphasize more on thinking process rather than teaching determination

# Humanistic educators believe that grading systems


are irrelevant # The students will not achieve their personal

satisfaction
# According to Holt (1964),

Comparisons and grades are seen as humiliating the child

# Humanistic educators believe that both feelings and knowledge are important to the learning process # As teachers, we should concern about our students feelings

# The learning can be easiest and meaningful if it takes place in a non-threatening situation
# Non-threatening situation is when the students feel unstressed and able to overcome their pressure

in the classroom
(1) Teacher as a facilitator # teacher guides the activity which has been done by the students the whole class will take part in the activity by having critical thinking process by practicing critical thinking system, well produce students who are able to express their views and able to think deep beyond privacy files so that the students will know their level can only be opened by the individual itself

(2) Enhance critical thinking # #

(3) Establish privacy files


# #

(4) Fair learning


# teachers should apply a fair learning process which every student is given chance to show their ability and free to express their view # everything being taught by us must be explain to all and not to particular person only (5) Provide non-threatening environment # instead of giving the task individuality, the teacher can set the task in group but evaluate individually

To the growth of
Humanistic Education
(1) CARL ROGERS 5 learning theories (i) Personal experience (ii) Perfect self-esteem (iii) The reality of self-esteem (iv) Build one-self (v) The choice of behaviour that not against ones belief

(2) ABRAHAM MASLOW


Hierarchy of human needs

There are 5 learning theories by Carl Rogers :

(1) Personal Experience


# Each individual has their own experience which depends on ones surrounding # Ones experience and thought cant be perceived by others (2) Perfect Self-Esteem # Every person has desired to be successful and happy

# Intrinsic motivation is important in order to encourage students to excel

(3) Realization of Self-Esteem


# as teachers, we must try to understand the students behaviour # the best way to understand a person is through communication (4) Self-development # we know ourselves based on our experience, ability and strength # if the experience that have been faced is negative, so his individual concept will be negative too (5) The choice of behaviour that is not against ones belief # we should show behaviour that based on our belief

HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS

To achieve / compete To be with others To feel secure and safe

Hunger / thirst

CONSTRUCTIVIST POINT OF VIEW ON LEARNING


CONSTRUCTIVISM

WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? THEORIES

FORMS

THE CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

COGNITIVE

PIAGETS

VYGOTSKYS

SOCIAL

APPLICATION

What is constructivism? - a view of learning based on the belief that


knowledge is not a thing that can be simply given by teacher. - knowledge is constructed by learners through an active, mental process of development - learners are the builders and the creators of meaning and knowledge.

is important..

- as the educational curricula are changing


TRANSACTIONAL CURRICULUM

TRANSMISSION CURRICULUM

Traditional curriculum students are passively listen, acquire facts

Students are actively involve - to reach new information

Students do not simply memorise or take on others conceptions of reality students create their own meaning and understanding. Learning as the result of mental construction; fitting new information + present information = construct own understanding Learning affected by the context and beliefs and attitudes of the leaner is encouraged to invent own solutions, hypotheses, and try out ideas.

PIAGET
Learning occurs by an active construction of meaning, rather than by passive recipience.

VYGOTSKY
Personal construct- which propose about the look at around the world through patterns which we create. Students create their own ways of seeing the world in which they live

Students make sense of the new information

COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM & SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM


i) COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM: It is based on Piagets work Focus on individual, internal constructions of knowledge Emphasizes on individuals search for meaning as they interact with the environment -E.g: the learners background knowledge, where more knowledge provided by parents, thus - better understanding for learners.

ii) SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM It is influenced by Vygotskys work


It suggests that knowledge is 1st constructed in a social context Emphasizes the process of sharing individual perspectives; collaborative elaboration learners constructed understanding wouldnt be alone

Emphasizes on teachers role in encouraging collaborative work among students


Social interaction students-teacher, studentsstudents both will gain benefits

CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

STUDENT-CENTERED

LEARNERS

More focus on students learning than a teachers teaching

TEACHERS

Active, independent learners

Focus on speaking and listening

Researchers/ supporters only

LEARNERS

STUDENT-CENTERED

TEACHERS Provide students with experiences

In a central position
Are perceived as meaning-maker

Interactive nature
Sharing responsibility among teachers and students Demonstrate mutual respect Active/meaningful learning

Promotes communication
Creates flexibility

The Teachers should:


Listening to students ideas and encouraging them Encouraging students to actively participate in doing, discussing and creating Providing more than one source of information so students can see different perspectives and have many inputs Encouraging students to compare and contrast ideas Including writing, so that students can think through their ideas

APPLICATION IN THE CLASSROOM


1) Inquiry and Problem-based Learning
Problem launches students inquiry The problem presented has yes or no answer.

2) Group Work and Cooperation in learning


Several students working together All members in group must be cooperative Evolving constructivist perspectives on learning

3) Making Cooperatives Learning Work


5 elements that define true cooperative learning group (David & Johnson, 1999) : i) face-t-face interaction ii) positive interdependence iii) individual accountability iv) collaborative skills v) Group processing e.g.: Jigsaw an early format for cooperative learning that emphasizes high interdependence

4) Dialogue and Instructional Conversations


instructional conversations because they are
designed to promote learning but it includes conversations not lectures Teachers goal to keep everyone cognitively engaged in a substantive discussion