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Pharmacodynamics

Dr.U.P.Rathnakar
MD.DIH.PGDHM

Pharmacovigilance
Actively look for adverse drug effects Activities relating to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug related problem Causality assessment 1. Temporal relationship 2. Previous knowledge 3. Dechallenge 4. Rechallenge
Information collected by Regional centers to Zonal centers to National centers to Uppsala monitoring center (Sweden)

Definite, probable, possible or doubtful

Quantitative estimation of a drug

Unknown drug

Quantitative estimation of the drug


Bio-assay[Biological method] Chromatography, spectrophotometry, fluorometry etc. Radio-immunological method Microbiological method

Quantitative estimation of a drug

Unknown drug

Known drug with Known concentration Eg.300mg/1ml 1ml relieves head ache in 10 minutes

2ml relieves head ache in 10 minutes

Bio assay
Aspirin
Grand mothers bitter decoction

ACH
Unknown

Compare

Compare

Quantitative estimation of a drug in an unknown sample by biological method

Bioassay
Acetylcholine [Standard]

Unknown [Suspected to have Ach action]

Compare Calculate concn.

Measurement of the potency [Concentration] of a drug from the magnitude of its main biological effect

Bioassay uses
Acetylcholine [Standard]

Unknown [Suspected to have Ach action]

Compare Calculate concn.

1. To measure pharmacological activity of new substances 2. To measure concn. Of new substance 3. ED50 and LD50 calculations 4. Standardization of drugs in natural sources when same cam not be done by other methods Eg.Bioassay of unknown solution is done against the effects of Ach Known [Ach]in frog rectus.
[Principles of pharmacology by Sharma & Sharma]

Fixed Dose Combinations [FDCs]

Carbidopa levodopa

The combination of two different drugs in a single pharmaceutical formulation Two drugs in a tablet, injection syp.etc

Fixed Dose Combinations [FDCs]


It is not simultaneous administration of two drugs for a disease It should be logical [Only about 20 are WHO approved] Advantageous Should not be dangerous Equal t Dose should be complimentary to plasma concentration

Fixed Dose Combinations [FDCs]


Advantages Convenience of dosagebetter compliance Synergism Reduced bacterial resistance Minimization of side effects Disadvantages Independent dose adjustments not possible If PK characteristics do not match-plasma concentration fluctuate

FDCs should not be prescribed unless: 1. There is reason to believe that pt. needs all the drugs in the combination 2. PK parameters match

Thank you!