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# Course: Animal Breeding and Genetics (12226)

## Instructor: Dr. Jihad Abdallah Inbreeding and Genetic Relationships

Inbreeding
Inbreeding means the mating of individuals that are related to each other by ancestry (have a common ancestor) We define the inbreeding coefficient, F, as the probability that two alleles at any locus in an individual are identical by descent (IBD), that is have the same common ancestor. F is a probability and thus ranges from 0 (noninbred individual or population) and 1.0 (completely inbred individual or population)
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## Wrights coefficient of relationship (RXY)

It is the probability that two homologous alleles carried by two individuals are identical by descent, the two individuals having one or more common ancestors.

R XY

rXY (1 FX )(1 FY )

RXY = Wrights coefficient of relationship between individuals X and Y rXY is called the numerator relationship coefficient

Finding the inbreeding coefficients and the numerator relationship coefficients by the tabular method Example
O

We assume that F= 0 for any individual which has one or both parents missing (unknown)

Rules
rij = rji
rij

1 (ris j rid j ) 2 1 Fi rsi d i 2 rii is the numerator relationship between the 1 rii 1 Fi 1 rsi d i individual i and itself 2 rsi d i is the numerator relationship between the

rij is the numerator relationship between individuals i and j sj is the sire of individual j, dj is the dam of individual j

## sire of i and the dam of i rij = 0 if both parents of j are unknown

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NOTE: Individual j is the younger individual. If i and j are in the same generation, then j is the one with more known parents

FO =0, rOO = 1, rO1 = rO2 = 0.5(rOO + 0) = 0.5(1+0)= 0.5 rO3 = rO4 = 0.5(rO1 + rO2) = 0.5(0.5+0.5) = 0.5, rOX = 0.5(rO3 + rO4) = 0.5(0.5+0.5) = 0.5 F1 = 0 r11 =1, r12 =0.5(rO1+0)=0.5(0.5+0)=0.25, r13 = r14 = 0.5(r11+r12) = 0.5(1+0.25) = 0.625, r1X =0.5(r13+r14)=0.5(0.625+0.625) = 0.625 F2 = 0 r22 =1, r23 = r24 = 0.5(r22+r21)=0.5(1+0.25) = 0.625, r2X = 0.5(r23+r24) = 0.5(0.625+0.625) = 0.625 F3= 0.5(r12) = 0.5(0.25) = 0.125 r33 = 1+0.125 =1.125 r34 = 0.5(r13+r23) = 0.5(0.625+0.625)=0.625, r3X = 0.5(r33+r34)= 0.5(1.125+0.625) = 0.875, F4 = 0.5(r12) = 0.5(0.25) = 0.125 r44 = 1+0.125 =1.125, r4X = 0.5(r44+r34) = 0.5(1.125+0.625)=0.875, FX = 0.5(r34) = 0.5(0.625) = 0.3125 rXX = 1+FX = 1+0.3125 =1.3125
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## Numerator relationships for the previous example:

(_, _) O (O,_) 1 (O,_) 2 (1,2) 3 (1,2) 4 (3,4) X

O 1 2 3 4 X

0.5 1

0.5 0.25 1

R XY

R12

(1)(1)

0.25

R34

## 0.625 (1)(1.125) 0.546

0.59

0.625 (1)(1.3125)
0.556

0.625 (1.125)(1.125)