Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

Rizal Technological University College of Arts and Sciences Department of Biology

Techniques in Microbiology: Schistosoma a.k.a Blood Flukes


Prepared by: Dominguez, Kevin Claine M. Ollero, Lajie

Schistosomes (Blood Flukes)


A Schistosome is a parasitic trematode worm also known as a Blood fluke and Bilharzia Flatworms that can live inside people for decades, and they make a rather gruesome journey to get there after hatching in water contaminated by feces. The parasites hitch a ride into the human body on a tiny snail host that burrows through skin.

Schistosomes (Blood Flukes)


The eggs of these parasites were first seen by Theodor Maximilian Bilharz, a German pathologist working in Egypt in 1851 who found the eggs of Schistosoma haematobium during the course of a post mortem.

Taxonomy
The genus Schistosoma as currently defined is paraphyletic so revisions are likely. Currently over twenty species are recognized within this genus. The genus has been divided into four groups indicum, japonicum, haematobiu m and mansoni. The affinities of the remaining species are still being clarified.

List of Species in Genus Schistosoma


S. edwardiense S. hippotami S. mansoni S. rodhani S. bovis S. curassoni S. intercalatum S. guineensis S. haematobium S. kisumuensis S. leiperi

S. matthei S. indicum S. nasale S. spindale S. japonicum S. malayens S. mekongi S. sinensum S. ovuncatum S. incognitum

Rated SPG!

Photo Gallery

Researchers discovered the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni harbors a population of non-sexual stem cells (yellow dots) that replenish its tissues and contribute to its ability to live in its host for decades.

Photo Gallery
S. mansoni

Photo Gallery

Life Cycle of Schistosomes


Schistosoma haematobium adults live in the veins of the vesical plexus around the bladder and along the ureters, whereas the adult intestinal schistosomes live in inferior and/or superior mesenteric veins around the walls of the large bowel, small intestine or rectum. Schistosome eggs are transmitted in the urine (for urogenital schistosomiasis) or stool (for intestinal schistosomiasis) of infected individuals and hatch into miracidia, which infect snails (an intermediate host).

Life Cycle of Schistosomes


In the snail, the miracidia transform into sporocysts, which give rise to cercariae. The cercariae leave the snail, swim freely in the freshwater and infect humans by penetrating the skin.

Life Cycle of Schistosomes

Comparison of Eggs

S. japonicum

S. haematobium

S. mansoni

Comparison of Eggs

S. mekongi

S. interculatum

Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a collective name of parasitic diseases caused by several species of trematodes belonging to the genus Schistosoma.

Schistosomiasis
Snails serve as the intermediary agent between mammalian hosts. Individuals within developing countries who cannot afford proper water and sanitation facilities are often exposed to contaminated water containing the infected snails.

Schistosomiasis
Cases of schistosomiasis begin when the body is invaded by the parasite in its infective stage, known as cercaria. Cercariae are released by the freshwater snails and swim freely in open bodies of water. The cercariae penetrate the skin of bathers in lakes and ponds where snails abound and cause a dermatitis often referred to as "swimmer's itch." The cercariae then mature into another larval form known as schistosomula.

Signs and Symptoms


Abdominal pain Cough Diarrhea Eosinophilia extremely high eosinophil granulocyte (white blood cell) count. Fever Fatigue

Signs and Symptoms


Hepatosplenomegaly the enlargement of both the liver and the spleen. Hepatic schistosomiasis is the second most common cause of esophageal varices worldwide. Genital sores lesions that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Lesions caused by schistosomiasis may continue to be a problem after control of the schistosomiasis infection itself. Early treatment, especially of children, which is relatively inexpensive, prevents formation of the sores. Skin symptoms: At the start of infection, mild itching and a papular dermatitis of the feet and other parts after swimming in polluted streams containing cercariae.

WHO IS MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION FROM SCHISTOSOMES?

Susceptibility to Schistosomes is universal. Anyone bathing, wading, or swimming in waters with infected snails may be infected.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCHISTOSOMES

In North America the cercariae do not mature inside the body often making the illness mild and selflimiting. In tropical areas of the world schistosomiasis is a more serious health issue. In fact, it is the second most prevalent tropical disease in the world behind malaria.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCHISTOSOMES

INCUBATION PERIOD

"Swimmer's Itch" may develop within days after becoming infected. Acute systemic manifestations may occur 2-6 weeks after infection. Most people have no symptoms at the early phase of infection.

DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Microscopic identification of eggs in stool or urine is the most practical method for diagnosis. A blood test has also been developed and is available. Tissue biopsy (rectal biopsy for all species and biopsy of the bladder for S. haematobium) may demonstrate eggs when stool or urine examinations are negative.

TREATMENT OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Safe and effective drugs are available for the treatment of schistosomiasis and only have to be taken for several days. The drug of choice is praziquantel for infections caused by all Schistosoma species.

TREATMENT OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

As with other major parasitic diseases, there is ongoing and extensive research into developing a Schistosomiasis vaccine that will prevent the parasite from completing its life cycle in humans.

TREATMENT OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Antimony has been used in the past to treat the disease. In low doses, this toxic metalloid bonds to sulfur atoms in enzymes used by the parasite and kills it without harming the host.