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ENERGY SYSTEMS COMPONENTS - 5

HEAT EXCHANGERS
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 1 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

The generic heat exchanger...

Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 2 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Generic types of heat exchangers

Mixed fluids
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 3 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Generic types of heat exchangers

Two fluids, unmixed. Cross flow.


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 4 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Generic types of heat exchangers


Two fluids, unmixed. Shell and tube. Parallel flow.

Two fluids, unmixed. Shell and tube. Counter flow.


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 5 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

The basis heat transfer problem


A m PA ,1 h A ,1 T A ,1

B m PB , 2 hB , 2 TB , 2

Outlet

Inlet

Fluid A

A B Q
Fluid B

A m PA, 2 hA, 2 TA, 2


A m PB ,1 hB ,1 TB ,1

Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 6 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

General analysis for the shell and tube heat exchanger...


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 7 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Generic types of heat exchangers


Two fluids, unmixed. Shell and tube. Parallel flow.

Two fluids, unmixed. Shell and tube. Counter flow.


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 8 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Shell and tube heat exchanger. Counter flow.

Fluid B out, TBo , pBo, hBo

Fluid A out, TAo, pAo, hAo Fluid A in, A TAi, pAi, hAi , m

Fluid B in, B TBi , pBi , hBi , m


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 9 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Assumptions for analysis


No work transfer. Steady state Negligible heat loss. Neglect changes in PE and KE. Lumped analysis is sufficient. Properties are defined at inlets to both fluid streams.
Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 10 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Mass conservation

A ,i 0 m
i 1 2

B ,i 0 m
i 1
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 11 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Energy balances
A B W A m A,i h A keA pe A i 0Q
=0
i 1
2

B A W B m B ,i hB keB peB i 0Q
=0
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

i 1

Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 12 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Mass and energy balances combined

A,i hA keA peA i 0 m


i 1 2

h m
B ,i i 1
Note that
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

keB peB i
A B Q B a Q
Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 13 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Mass and energy balances combined

A1 m A2 m B1 m B2 m
A (hA1 hA2 ) m B (hB1 hB 2 ) 0m
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 14 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

General analysis for the heat exchanger with fluids mixed...


Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 15 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Generic types of heat exchangers


A

Mixed fluids
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 16 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Assumptions
No work transfer. Steady state Negligible heat loss. Neglect changes in PE and KE. Lumped analysis is sufficient. Properties are defined at inlets to both fluid streams.
Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 17 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki

Mass conservation

i 0 m
i 1

A m B m C 0m
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 18 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Energy balance

i hi 0 QCV WCV m
i 1

A hA m B hB m C hC 0m
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 19 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Mass and energy balances combined

A hA m B hB m C hC 0m AhA m B hB m hC A m B m
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 20 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers

Key concepts and terms


Cross flow heat exchanger Counter flow heat exchanger Heat exchanger with mixed fluids Heat exchanger with unmixed fluids Parallel flow heat exchanger Shell and tube heat exchanger
Instructors Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics 2001, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 4 Module 11 Slide 21 Steady Flow Engineering Devices: Heat Exchangers