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Why Power & Batteries

Why do we need ELTEK Power Supply? - And why do we need Batteries?

Our main tasks !


1.

PROVIDE A RELIABLE DC-POWER SUPPLY TO THE TELECOM EQUIPMENT.

2.
3.

CHARGE THE BATTERIES


MONITOR AND CONTROL THE SYSTEM
TO ACHIEVE A LONG LIFETIME AND A HIGH MTBF (MEANTIME BEFORE FAILURE) OF THE COMPLETE SUPPLY- AND BACK-UP SYSTEM.

Why DC and not AC Power Supply ?

A filter for all the noise (EMC, surges etc) present on the AC power lines. All telecom equipment (PABX, Base Stations, Main Switches) have to operate when the AC supply (mains) is absent. The telecom equipment have to be supplied by stored energy while the AC supply (mains) is absent. Batteries are today the cheapest and most efficient way to store electrical energy, and can only be charged by DC.

Why DC and not AC Power Supply ?

A DC Power Supply System converts the AC power to DC Voltage, to charge the batteries and to supply the Telecom equipment (load) when mains is present. When the AC supply (mains) fails, the batteries will supply the Telecom equipment (load) until the mains supply returns. The rectifier system will then recharge the batteries. The DC power supply will monitor and control the system and provide alarms in case of failure.
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Why DC and not AC Power Supply ?

What is the key questions to be asked ? (minimum)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What is the desired system voltage ? What is the maximum current or power needed ? How many load outputs are needed ? What is the redundant requirements ? What is the desired back-up time ? What is the desired re-charge time ? What end-voltage can be used ?
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TYPICAL POWER PLANT

Overview / Components Current flow Voltage sequence Discharge - Recharge


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Overview/Components in a Power System


UPS AC/DC - DC/AC

MAINS FUSES

ALARM MODULE

Battery & Load Distribution

DC-DC or DC/AC

LOAD
(pcs or different voltage)

G
OVP DIESEL GENERATOR

Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n Rectifier #n REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC

NONE PRIORITY LOAD LVLD

LVBD

PRIORITY LOAD

BATTERY BANK

BATTERY DISTRIBUTION

BATTERY BANK

Overview/Components in a Power System

Ic x tc = Id x td x 1,2 x 0,9
Ic = re-charge current

tc = re-charge time
Id = discharge current

Ic =
i.e:

Id x td x 1,2 x 0,9 tc
10t

td = discharge time
1,2 = is the 20% efficiency loss 0,9 = is the 90% re-charged level

100A x 10t x 1,2 x 0,9 (= 1080Ah)

= 108A, in 10hrs up to 90%


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Overview/Components in a Power System

All Eltek rectifiers (some exceptions):


Is designed for Single-phase 220Vac ! Have active power factor correction (cos.) Active current sharing between modules in a system Fused input Constant Power (48-56Vdc)

Short circuit protected DC output


Blocking diode on the DC output
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OverVoltage protected DC output

Current Flow in a System

MAINS INPUT OK
LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE RECTIFIER SYSTEM BATTERIES ON FLOAT CHARGE. RECTIFIER SYSTEM TELECOM EQUIPMENT

AC INPUT

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BATTERY BANK

Current Flow in a System

MAINS INPUT FAILED (ABSENT)


LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE BATTERIES BATTERIES ARE DISCHARGING RECTIFIER SYSTEM TELECOM EQUIPMENT

AC INPUT

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BATTERY BANK

Current Flow in a System

MAINS INPUT OK
LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE RECTIFIER SYSTEM

BATTERIES ARE RECHARGING


RECTIFIER SYSTEM TELECOM EQUIPMENT

AC INPUT

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BATTERY BANK

Voltage Sequence in a DC Power System


U
53.5

Mains failure

Mains OK

w/Charge Current Limitation Normal Charge current

43.2

LVBD level (43,2 / 24 = 1,8v)

Battry collapse t - w/Charge Current Limitation

Normal operation.
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Battery Discharge

Battery Re-Charge

BATTERIES

1. Operating principle of the Recombination Technology 2. Open Circuit Voltage in relation to the state of charge of the cell 3. Float Voltage versus temperature
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Operating principle of the Recombination Technology


For conventional lead acid cells water is lost during cycling, due to electrolysis. The result of this is regular battery checks and periodic topping-up operations. Sealed, valve regulated lead acid battery design eliminates/reduce these problems through continuous recombination of the oxygen during overcharge.
During overcharge the following reactions occur: + 1. Oxygen is evolved at the positive plate by the reaction; H2O -> 1/2 O2 + 2H + 2eand diffuses through the unfilled pores of the seperator to the surface of the negative plate 2. At the negative plate oxigen combines with Pb and sulphuric acid; Pb + H2SO4 + 1/2 O2 -> Pb SO4 + H2O 3. The charging process electrochemically regenerates the lead in the negative plate, compl. the cycle; + Pb SO4 + 2H + 2e- -> Pb + H2SO4

As a result, the recombination process with an efficiency higher than 98% completes and reverses the water oxidation. At the end of the process, teh recombination has replaced the water, the electrolyte and the lead in the negative plates without having modified the state of charge of the plates.
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Open Circuit Voltage in relation to state of charge of the cell.


Charge Voltage
VDC Open Circuit Voltage (per cell)l
2.15

2.10

2.05

2.00

1.95

1.90 0 16 25 50 75

100

State of charge (%)

Float Voltage versus temperature


(Example from Exide)

2,55 2,5
Volt /Cell (eks: 3mV/C*)

AD-590 sensor

2,45 2,4 2,35 2,3 2,25 2,2 2,15 2,1 2,05 2 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10

AD-592 sensor

20

30

40

50

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Degrees Celsius
Test of AD-592: 273uA is 0 grad.C and 293uA is 20 grad.C (i.e.1uA per deg.C)

To be continued..

END OF SESSION....

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