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CAMEL in GPRS prepaid service

ghlee@alumni.csie.nctu.edu.tw

Outline

Evolution of IN GPRS overview CAMEL in GPRS Discussion

Plain Old Telephone Service

Service logic were hardwired in switching systems. Network operators discuss services customers required with switch vendors. (no standard) Once services were implemented, they were not easily modified.

service logic hardwired

Stored Program Control


In the mid-1960s, stored program control (SPC) switching systems were introduced. As a result, it was easier to introduce new services. Service logic was not modular.

service logic programmable

Common Channel Signaling


In the mid-1970s, common channel signaling network (CCSN) was introduced. Signaling system number 7 (SS7) is the protocol that runs over the CCSN. SS7 network separates the call setup information and talk path from the common trunk that runs between switching systems.

SS7 network components

signal switching points (SSPs)SSPs are telephone switches equipped with SS7-capable software and terminating signaling links. They generally originate, terminate, or switch calls. signal transfer points (STPs)STPs are the packet switches of the SS7 network. They receive and route incoming signaling messages to destination. signal control points (SCPs)SCPs are databases providing information necessary for advanced callprocessing capabilities

SS7 network

The Introduction of IN

During the mid-1980s, Telcordia Technologies responded to RBOCss request and developed the concept of Intelligent Network 1 (IN/1). Service logic splits from switching system, now resides in service control points (SCP).
service logic now here

Call Model

PICs represent switching system states that a call goes through from origination to termination. SSPs check TDPs to see if there are any active triggers. If an active trigger is detected, normal switching system call processing is suspended until the SSP and SCP complete communications.

SSP suspended,and ask SCP what to do 9 in next step

GPRS logical architecture


SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A R TE MT Iu Uu UTRAN Gb TE R MT Um SGSN BSS Gn Gp CGF GGSN Other PLMN Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface Gf EIR Gs Iu SGSN Gn Ga
D

SM-SC C CAMEL GSMSCF HLR

Ge Gr Gc Gi GGSN Ga Billing System PDN TE

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Transmission plane in 2.5G


Application IP
Relay

IP

SNDCP

Radio indep
Radio dep

Multiplexing layer
Relay

SNDCP LLC

GTP-U

GTP-U

LLC RLC MAC GSM RF Um RLC MAC GSM RF BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb

UDP BSSGP Network Service L1bis IP L2 L1 Gn

UDP IP L2 L1 Gi

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Frame relay
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Signaling plane in 2.5G


GMM/SM LLC
Relay

GMM/SM LLC RLC MAC GSM RF Um BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb BSSGP Network Service L1bis

RLC MAC GSM RF

MS

BSS

2G-SGSN

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Multiplexing of network protocols


IP/X.25
Signalling SMS Packet Data Protocol

Signaling plane

Transmission plane
NSAPI SNDCP

N-PDU

SNDC Header NSAPI + Control SAPI LLC TLLI RLC or BSSGP LLC Header Control

Data

LLC Information Data

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User plane in 3G
Application

E.g., IP, PPP Relay PDCP RLC MAC L1


Uu

E.g., IP, PPP Relay GTP-U UDP/IP AAL5 ATM


Iu-PS

PDCP RLC MAC L1

GTP-U UDP/IP AAL5 ATM

GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1
Gn

GTP-U UDP/IP L2 L1
Gi

MS

UTRAN

3G-SGSN

3G-GGSN
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ATM

Control plane in 3G
GMM / SM / SMS GMM / SM / SMS

Relay RRC RLC MAC L1


Uu

RRC RLC MAC L1

RANAP SCCP
Signalling Bearer

RANAP SCCP
Signalling Bearer

AAL5 ATM
Iu-Ps

AAL5 ATM 3G SGSN


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MS

RNS

CAMEL architecture
Home Network

HLR
MAP

gsmSCF
CAP

gprsSSF SGSN
MS

Interrogating Network

Visiting Network

Home/Interrogating/Visiting Network

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MAP/CAP protocol stack


CAP has the same underlying protocol stack as MAP. Ge interface is first defined in 3G, but didnt appear in 2.5G.
MAP TCAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 L1 Gr HLR
CAP TCAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 L1 gprsSSF Ge CAP TCAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 L1 gsmSCF
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MAP TCAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 L1 SGSN

Overall CAMEL Architecture


gsmSCF CAP Interface
GPRS Dialogue Handler

Internal CAP Interface gprsSSF Internal Interface


MobileStation

SGSN

GTP

GGSN
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Detection Points (DPs)

GPRS events maybe made visible to gsmSCF. DPs are points at which these events are detected. DPs can be armed to notify gsmSCF GPRS event was encountered, and to allow gsmSCF to influence subsequent handling of GPRS session/PDP Context. If DP isnt armed, processing entity continues processing without gsmSCF involvement at the DP.
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Detection Points (DPs)

3 different types of DP:


Trigger Detection Point-Request (TDP-R) Event Detection Point-Request (EDP-R) Event Detection Point-Notification (EDP-N)

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Detection Points (DPs)

TDP-R Statically armed, initiate a CAMEL control relationship When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended EDP-R Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended and gprsSSF waits for inst from gsmSCF EDP-N Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship When GPRS event is encountered, processing is not suspended.
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GPRS Attach/Detach State Model

3 DPs are defined:


Detached

DP Attach DP Change of Position Detach GPRS session DP Detach


User- or network initiated detach

Attach request AD_Exception

Attach

Attached
Intra SGSN Routeing area update

Inter SGSNRouteing area update

Change of Position GPRS Session

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GPRS PDP Context State Model


Idle

4 DPs are defined:

DP PDP Context PDP Context Est. PDP_Context_ Context C_Exception Establishment PDP Setup Disconnection PDP Context DP PDP Context Setup Ack. PDP Context Est. Ack. Establishment Ack User or network PDP_Context_ initiated disc. DP PDP Context Established Disconnection Routeing area update Change of Position Context DP Change of Position Context Routeing area update
Change of Position context

PDP Context Setup Req

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GPRS CAMEL Scenarios

2 scenarios for CAMEL control of GPRS

Scenario 1

Allows CAMEL control of GPRS session and of multiple PDP contexts within 1 GPRS dialogue Allows CAMEL control of a single PDP contexts Multiple PDP contexts are controlled via multiple GPRS dialogues.

Scenario 2

Scenario 1 and scenario 2 are mutually exclusive.


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GPRS CAMEL Scenario 1

Involves Attach/Detach state model Uses less resource (tcap dialogue) More complicated when implementation
SGSN / SSP A/D SM PDP#1 SM PDP#2 SM GPRS Dialogue Information flow related to the Session Information flow related to PDP Context #1 Information flow related to PDP Context #2
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SCP

GPRS CAMEL Scenario 2

Doesnt involves Attach/Detach state model Uses more resource (tcap dialogue) Simpler when implementation
SGSN / SSP PDP#1 SM GPRS Dialogue #1 Information flow related to PDP context #1 SCP

PDP#2 SM

Information flow related to PDP context #2 GPRS Dialogue #2


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GPRS Attach

The message sequence chart is too large to fit in this slide. Please see the supplementary document from 3GPP 23060 spec. Notice the Insert subscriber data procedure, GPRSCSI (CAMEL Subscription Information) is sent from HLR to SGSN. 2.5G HLR does not keep GPRS-CSI, nor does it send GPRS-CSI to SGSN. 3G HLR could keep GPRS-CSI, also it sends GPRS-CSI when doing Insert subscriber data procedure.
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GPRS-CSI

GPRS-CSI contains following information


gsmSCF Address Service Key Default GPRS Handling TDP List CAMEL Capability Handling CSI state Notification flag gsmSCF address list for CSI
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PDP Context Activation in 2.5G


C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement


MS BSS 2G-SGSN 2G-GGSN

1. Activate PDP Context Request C1 2. Security Functions 3. Invoke Trace 4. Create PDP Context Request 4. Create PDP Context Response 7. BSS Packet Flow Context Procedures C2 9. Activate PDP Context Accept
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PDP Context Activation in 3G


C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment. C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement


MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN 1. Activate PDP Context Request C1 4. Create PDP Context Request 4. Create PDP Context Response 5. Radio Access Bearer Setup 6. Invoke Trace 8. Update PDP Context Request 8. Update PDP Context Response C2 9. Activate PDP Context Accept

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CAMEL procedures for charging activities


Procedure ApplyChargingGPRS ApplyChargingReportGPRS InitialDPGPRS ContinueGPRS EventReportGPRS RequestReportGPRSEvent ssf -> scf scf ->ssf -

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Discussion

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