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HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS IN PREGNANCY

MAJ NABILA AMIN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, ARMY MEDICAL COLLEGE CLASSIFIED GYNAECOLOGIST, CMH RAWALPINDI

TYPES OF HYPERTENSIVE DISEASE IN PREGNANCY

1-Gestational hypertension 2-PET 3-Eclampsia 4-Chronic hypertension 5-PET superimposed on chronic hypertension

1-Gestational hypertension
BP 140/90 mm Hg for the first time during pregnancy No proteinuria BP returns to N < 12 Wk postpartum Final Dx made only postpartum May have other signs of PET eg. Headache, epigastric discomfort or thrombocytopenia

PET
Minimum criteria
BP 140/90 mm Hg after 20 Wk gestation Proteinuria 300 mg/24 hrs or 1+ dipstick Increased certainty of PET

BP 160/110 mm Hg Proteinuria 2 gm/24 hrs or 2+ dipstick Serum creatinine > 1.2 mg/dl unless known to be previously elevated Platelets < 100 000/mm

Increased certainty of PET Microangiopathic hemolysis (increased LDH) Elevated ALT or AST Persistent headache or other cerebral/ visual disturbance Persistent epigastric pain
ECLAMPSIA Seizures that can not be attributed to other causes in a woman with PET. 1% of Pt with PET develop eclamppsia

CHRONIC HYPERTENSION

BP 140/90 mm Hg before pregnancy or Dx before 20 Wk gestation HPT first Dx after 20 Wk gestation & persistent after 12 Wk postpartum
PET SUPERIMPOSED ON CHRONIC HYPERTENSION

New onset proteinuria 300 mg/24 hrs in hypertensive women but no proteinuria before 20 Wk gestation A sudden increase in proteinuria or BP or Plt count < 100 000/ mmin women with HPT & proteinuria before 20 Wk gestation

INCIDENCE & RISK FACTORS


PET occurs in 6-8% of all live birth RISK FACTORS Extremes of reproductive age 15 < & >35 Y Nulliparity Black race Hx of PET in a 1st degree female relative Hx of PET in prior pregnancy DM Chronic renal disease Ch HPT Multiple pregnancy Hydatidiform mole Nonimmune hydrops fetalis Obesity Smoking

SYMPTOMS & SIGNS


BP Proteinuria Edema of the face & hands ( but it has been dropped of the definition due to poor predictive value) Headache Visual disturbance Epigastric pain Exaggerated reflexes

Fetal & maternal risks


Fetal IUGR Oligohydramnios Placental infarcts Placental abruption Prematurity Uteroplacental insufficiency Perinatal death Maternal CNS seizures & stroke DIC CS Renal failure Hepatic failure or rupture Death

CLASSIFICATION OF PET
SEVERE PET Systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic >110 mmHg on two occasions at least 6 hrs apart Proteinuria 5 g/24 hrs Oliguria < 500 cc /24 hrs Cerebral or visual symptoms Epigastric or Rt upper quadrant pain Pulmonary edema or cyanosis Low PLt liver enzymes IUGR MILD PET any PET that is not considered severe

MANAGEMENT OF PET & ECLAMPSIA

Management
OBJECTIVES Terminaton of pregnancy with the least possible trauma to the mother & fetus Birth of an infant who subsequently thrives Complete restoration of health to the mother 1- Hospitalization Women with new onset BP 140/90 Worsening BP Development of proteinuria in addition to existing BP

INITIAL HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT


Observe for headache , visual disturbance, epigastric pain & rapid wt gain Wt daily Analysis for proteinuria every 2 days / daily BP in sitting position every 4 hrs except during sleep Blood investigations Hct, Plt, S creatinine, liver enzymes Frequent evaluation of fetal size Reduced physical activity but not absolute bed rest Normal diet & fluid intake

Antihypertensive therapy
Mild PET no benefit of antihypertensive therapy Reduction in the maternal BP with labetalol or nifedipine IUGR Severe PET Antihypertensive therapy is used to control BP until the Pt delivers or in preterm for 48 hrs to allow time for glucocorticoid administration for fetal lung maturity then delivery

Antihypertensive therapy for severe PET & Eclampsia


Hydralazine IV infusion or IV 5-10 mg bolus at 15-20 min interval when diastolic BP 100-110 mm Hg or systolic BP 160 mmHg Nifedipine 10 mg po repeated in 30 min Labetalol 10 mg IV / 20 mg after 10 min/ 40mg after 10min/80 mg (not to exceed 220 mg) Nitroprusside used only in PT not responding to other drugs Diuretics not recommended

THANK YOU