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STAGES IN A LISTENING LESSON

Pre Listening stage:


Listening activities, in general, should consist of some well-structured pre-, while-, and post-listening stages. The pre-listening phase is a kind of preparatory work which: (...) ought to make the context explicit, clarify purposes and establish roles, procedures and goals for listening (Rost 1990:232).

The pre-listening stage helps learners to find out the aim of listening and provides the necessary background information. Jones and Kimborough (1987:2) suggest introducing some preliminary discussion in which students can talk together about their expectations and make predictions about what they are going to hear.

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During this stage the teacher does one or more of the following things:

tries to rouse the learners interest in what he is about to listen; makes the learner actively aware of information/experiences that would be
useful in helping him understand what he will hear;

does various things that help learners to acquire or revise the language that
would be necessary for him to understand the listening input;

gives learner a purpose for listening

Common types of activities for Pre Listening stage:


Informal teacher talk and class discussion; Looking at pictures and talking about them; Making lists of possibilities/suggestions, etc; Reading a related text; Reading through questions learners need to answer while listening; Predicting outcomes; Previewing the language;

Summary on Pre Listening activities:


We may use more than one kind of pre-listening activity; Pre-listening tasks should not take much time; The purpose of pre-listening activities is to activate
schema, i.e. to provide context.

the students

While listening stage:


This is the centre of focus of the lesson.
The activities in this stage contain the teaching points the teacher wishes to deal with in the lesson. This part may contain just one activity or it may contain a number of related activities.

While-listening activities are what learners are asked to do during the time that
they are listening to the text.As far as listening comprehension (listening for meaning)is concerned,the purpose of while-listening activities is to help learners develop the skill of eliciting messages from spoken language. continue...

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While-listening activities should be interesting,so that the learners feel they want to
listen and carry out the activities.Part of the interest can stem from the topic and the content of what is said,and the listening text should be chosen with the interests of the learners in mind.

Common types of activities for while listening stage:


ticking off items (bingo); where students listen to a list of words and categorize (tick off) them as they hear information transfer; where students have to fill grids, forms, lists, maps, plans etc. sequencing; where students are asked to give the right order of a series of pictures information search; that is listening for specific items, e.g. answer a particular question from the pre-listening stage filling in blanks of a transcript of a passage with the words missing (e.g. lyrics of a song) matching the items which have the same or opposite meaning as those the students hear, or matching the pictures with the descriptions heard

Summary on While Listening activities :


Most of the time, it is helpful to provide a task for the students to do something
while they are listening. By providing a variety of types of tasks, students learn to listen for a variety of purposes, which better prepares them for listening in the real world outside the classroom.

Post Listening stage :


The post-listening stage is where the teacher can determine how well the students
have understood what they listened to.

Post-listening

exercises should be interesting and motivating. Before a teacher chooses a certain activity he/she must consider how much language work they wish to do with the particular listening passage. How much time they will need to do a particular post-listening task; whether the post-listening stage will include speaking (discussion), reading or writing (ticking, writing short notes, dialogues or essays) and whether they want learners to work individually, in pairs or in groups (Underwood 1989:80).

Common types of activities for Post Listening stage:


Multiple choice questions Answering questions Note-taking and gap-filling Dictogloss

Summary on Post Listening activities:


Dont spend too much time giving students practise with traditional testtaking questions; Integrate listening tasks with speaking and writing.

STAGES IN A SPEAKING LESSON

Presentation stage:
The Presentation phase of the lesson is when the teacher introduces new
information. interaction.

The teacher guides the presentation, but there may be learner input or

The presentation may be inductive (where examples are presented and the
students draw conclusions based on them), or deductive (where the teacher states a rule or generalization and proceeds to explain or illustrate it), or..

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Some combination or variation of inductive and/or deductive. Whichever method


is used, during the presentation phase, the teacher:
i.Relates the new material to students' previous knowledge and experiences, ii.Checks students' comprehension, and iii.Models examples of the tasks that will be expected of students during the

practice phase of the lesson.

When teaching English to people whose English skills are limited, it is essential
to ensure that students understand the presentation by: i.Keeping the language simple, ii.Illustrating the presentation, and iii.Checking students' comprehension periodically.

Aims of Presentation stage


The Presentation stage has three main functions: To enable learners to recognize the relevance and usefulness of what they are about to learn; a) To enable them to learn the language - words, structures, pronunciation (that they need to learn). b) To make them aware of the contexts in which the language they learn can be appropriately used.

The Presentation stage focuses on any one of these:


a)Learning the set of inter related functions in a communicative situation (e.g. buying goods in a shop; apologizing, accepting apology). b)Learning different ways of expressing a function and which way is appropriate for

which situation.
c)Learning some structure or set of words required to do common communicative tasks (e.g. past tense to tell stories, present tense to talk about habitual actions and hobbies and etc..)

Practice stage:
The Practice stage comes after the presentation stage. During this phase, the teacher may still be in control although recent preference
seems to be to have pair and group work to maximise student talking time and practice.

Aims of the Practice stage:


The practice stage has two important functions: a) to give learners intensive practice in the target language but within naturalistic, although still highly controlled contexts; b) to build up learners confidence in their ability to use the target language to a level that allows them to participate in the freer communicative situation they would meet in the final phase of the lesson.

Typical activities for Practice stage:


a)Using model dialogues. b)Communicative games. c)Drills.

d)Information gap activities.

Production stage:
This is the last stage in the presentation-practice-production sequence. May be the only stage necessary for advanced learners.

Aims of the Production stage:


The production stage has a number of aims: To provide a context in which the new language learnt would naturally occur provides learners with an opportunity to recognise the relevance and usefulness of the new language they have learnt. To enable the teacher to evaluate her own teaching and the learners learning to prepare for further practice or remedial work.

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c)To enables learners to integrate the new language they have learnt with language they already know.

d)To build greater fluency and ability to cope with features of real communication,
e.g. unpredictability and creative use of language.

Types of activities for Production stage:


There are many different kinds of activities that are commonly used during this stage. The following are some examples: Opinion gap Role play Information gap Discourse chain Problem solving Information sharing and opinion gap