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Choosing Brand Elements to build Brand Equity

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5. 6.

Memorabiltiy Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability Protectability

Memorable Easily recognized Easily recalled Meaningful Descriptive Persuasive (Believable)


Symbol of love and forbidden temptations in Greek.

Coke gets it wrong

The name Coca-Cola in China was first rendered as Ke-kou-ke-la. Unfortunately, the Coke company did not discover until after thousands of signs had been printed that the phrase means bite the wax tadpole or female horse stuffed with wax depending on the dialect.

Coke gets it right?

Coke then researched 40,000 Chinese characters and found a close phonetic equivalent ko-kou-ko-le, which can be loosely translated as happiness in the mouth. (competition in 1930s)

Likable Fun & Interesting Rich visual & verbal imagery Aesthetically pleasing

Transferable Within & across product boundaries Across geographic boundaries & cultures

Adaptable Flexible Updateable

Protectable Legally registered trade mark Competitively

Brand Elements

Brand Names & URLs Logos & Symbols Characters Slogans & Jingles Packaging & Signage

Brand Linguistics


alliteration (Coca-Cola)


spelling (Kool); abbreviation (7 Up, IBM)

compound (Janitor-in-a-drum) Metaphor (Arrid)



Brand Names & URLs

Useful for Brand Awareness & Brand Associations Compaq, Yahoo, Tide, Dove

Descriptive Singapore Airlines, Hit, Gati, Ivory Suggestive suggests a benefit or function Colorstay lipsticks, Head & Shoulders, Mop & Glo, Aquaguard, Eveready, Sugar Free, Low Cal Classical based on Greek, Latin or Sanskrit words Arbitrary no relationship with the company/Product Apple Computers, Camel

Brand Names

RedHat PriceWaterhouse Coopers

Fanciful (imaginative
words) Vodafone Wochardt

Arbitary (real words

without direct connection)


Vedanta Balaji Telefilms

Apple Orange Mango


Keep it as simple as possible Avoid Clichs Avoid the .com Brand v/s description helps only short term Unique personality Unexpected combination (motley fool) Reinvent a real word Make new words

Logos & Symbols

1. 2.


Corporate names & Trademarks Coca-Cola, Nestle, Tata, Maruti, Johnson & Johnson Abstract or non-word mark logos are also known as symbols- Mercedes star, Rolex crown, Nike swoosh, Olympic rings Many logos fall between these 2 extremes Ralph Laurens polo player, Playboys Bunny, McDonalds Golden Arch, Apple Logo


Visual nature of logos & symbols easy recognition & recall Versatile- can be updated transferred across cultures Can be appropriate for a range of product categories-Surf, Dettol, Lux

A symbol that takes on human or real life characteristics McDonalds Ronald Disney Characters Asian Paints Gattu Pillsbury Doughboy Kellogg's Bear Frosted Flakes -Tony the Tiger Duracell Bunnies Hush Puppies


Enhance brand personality & build relationship with customers Disney for kids Valuable Licensing properties Barbie dolls, Spiderman, Superman etc., All Disney Characters Can be updated to suit the changing times


Short phrases that contain descriptive or persuasive information Adds verbal reinforcement Design of slogans

TO build awareness and image Product sense and beyond (zindagi ke saath bhi .. Ke baad bhi) Find out contribution of existing slogan Find out what more you wish to enhance Retain good qualities of earlier slogan and build up on that

Updation of slogans


Just Do it When it absolutely positively has to be there overnite No more tears Diamonds are forever We try harder On time every time


Often rich and colorful attention getting and help in creating brand awareness Help Brands in breaking through the clutter in the market Communicate a key product benefit reliability, speed Sprint telecom


Musical easy recall - Airtel Reinforce brand positioning and enhance PODs or POPs Useful when designing Ad campaigns

Desert rose jaguar The axe song Helps in repetitive reminding


Identify the brand strong brand association with packaging style of company Convey descriptive & persuasive information Facilitate product transportation & protection & storage Assist at-home storage (bottles and refill)


Aid Product consumption (screw-on cap in soft drink) Color vocabulary (product and category) Innovations can boost sales Soft drink cans, 2 litre bottles, chocolates in smaller packs, shampoos and hair oils in sachets enhance product usage & consumption


Heineken beer green bottle Cadbury- purple Kit-Kat red Kodak films yellow Pepsi - blue

Packaging Essentials

Know your consumer Take the big-picture approach Aesthetics + Function Know your distribution channels Educate Management