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Psychoanalytic Theory

Presented by :KULDEEP KATIYAR 102110030 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud)


This theory explained that human behavior is motivated by an inner force called the human mind. This theory was introduced by SIGMUND FREUD. SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who worked as an neurologist. Early in his career, he used hypnosis to treat people with physical and emotional problem. From his work with these patients, he began to conceptualize a theory of human behavior.
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PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud)


Freud theorized that people have two basic instincts SEXUAL and AGGRESSION. These two basic instincts are not always socially acceptable. When people exhibit behavior that is not acceptable, they often experience punishment, guilt and anxiety. II. Freuds theory describes a conflict between a persons instinctual needs for gratification and the demands of society for socialization. For Freud, a persons core tendency is to maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt. III. This theory proposes that conflicts among unconscious motivating factors affect behavior. I.
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STAGES OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY


Level of consciousness. Stages of personality. Defence model. Psychosexual stages of development.
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LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
CONSCIOUS aware of here and now, in contact with reality. It functions only when the person is awake. PRECONSCIOUS / SUBCONSCIOUS Contains the partially forgotten memories that can be recalled at will. Preconscious serves as the watchman by preventing unacceptable & anxiety producing memories from reaching the conscious awareness.

UNCONSCIOUS The largest part of the personality that is often compared to the hidden iceberg under the water that contains memory that are forgotten & cannot be brought back to consciousness at will.
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STAGES OF PERSONALITY
ID represents psychological energy, or libido and it operates on pleasure principles which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. The ID only knows that what it wants and what it wants right away regardless of the present circumstances. does not care about morals, society and other individuals. starts from birth to 6 months. demanding, unrealistic, primitive, instinctual, uncivilized, undisciplined. EGO is the one that relates to the world or reality to satisfy the demands of the ID. The ego operates by reality principle & uses problem solving based on how it judges reality. It controls the demands & mediates between the ID and the Superego according to the demands of the reality. operates on conscious level. begins in the first 6 or 8 months of life and fairly well developed at age 2 or 3 years. serves to control and guide actions of an individual.
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STAGES OF PERSONALITY
SUPEREGO is the one that rewards the moral behavior and punishes actions that are not acceptable by creating guilt. The superego is our conscience, a residue of internalized values & moral training of early childhood. Operates on both conscious and unconscious. Functions on MORAL PRINCIPLE. Develops around the age of 3-4 or 4-5 and fairly well developed at age 10 years. Ego Ideal Rewards the person with feeling of well-being and pride when a person conforms to the demands of the superego. Concern with what is believe to be morally or basically right. Conscience Punishes the person with guilt feelings when person deviates from the demands of the superego. concern with what is believe to be morally or basically wrong.

DEFENCE MODEL
Sublimation Repression. Projection.

Regression.
Displacement.
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FREUDS STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT


Oral ( 0-18 months ) The infants pleasure is believed to center around gratification from using his mouth for sucking and satisfying hunger. Feeling and activities are focused on & expressed by the mouth and are orally dominated. Anal ( 18 mos. - 3 years ) Begins w/ the attainment of neuromuscular control of the anal sphincter. Toilet training is the crucial issue requiring delayed gratification in compromising between enjoyment of bowel function and limitations set by social expectations for the toddler. .continued
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FREUDS STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT


Phallic ( 3 to 6 years ) Increased curiosity re: the genitals, questioning and selfstimulation or masturbation. Latent ( 6 12 years ) The child realizes that desires directed to the parent of opposite sex are not feasible, and become occupied with socializing with peers, refining roles and relationships. Genital (12 20 years *adult sexuality) Develops awareness of body & sexual part. Represents an emergence of sexual interest w/c can now be expressed in an overt heterosexual relationship.
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Freud vs. Jung Dream Theories


Freuds Theory
View of Unconscious : Dangerous. Personal unconscious. Negative id drives of sex/aggression.

Jungs Theory
View of Unconscious : Potentially dangerous force of nature Personal & Collective unconscious Bright shadow

Function of dream : Function of dream : Wish fulfillment. Logic of dream : Compensation. Primary process & censorship. Logic of dream : Analytic tool : Language of metaphor. Analytic tool : Free association. Amplification

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Relevance of Freuds Theory in Todays Life


Fashionable to attack Freud Outdated Unscientific Sexist. Nevertheless, all major subsequent theories have been based on his revolutionary, pioneering work

He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature for his seminal book, The Interpretation of Dreams which appeared in 1900.
Looking back in 1930, he said of The Interpretation of Dreams, that it contained the most valuable of all the discoveries it has been my good fortune to make. Insight such as this falls to ones lot but once in a lifetime. I must affirm that dreams really have a meaning and that a scientific procedure for 12 interpreting them is possible.

Freuds theory is complex because:


He kept modifying it as he went along. He never presented a comprehensive summary of his final views His theory is more comprehensive than must since it has a number of aspects. For example, he gives us : A theory of motivation. A theory of thinking (which includes dreaming, etc). A theory of personality development (psychosexual theory). A theory of mental structures (id, ego, superego). A theory of psychopathology and symptom formation. A theory of psychotherapy. 13

Only the liberation of the natural capacity for love in human beings can master their sadistic destructiveness.

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