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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

A Definition
TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customers (both external and internal) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved with the organizational working on continuous improvement in all products/processes along with proper problem solving methodology.

TO DELIVER HIGHEST VALUE AT LOWEST COST

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Key contributors to quality management


contributor
DEMMING JURAN FEIGENBAUM CROSBY ISHIKAWA TAGUCHI

Key contributions
14 Points, special versus common cause of variation. Quality is fitness-for-use , quality trilogy. Quality is a total field, the customer defines quality. Quality is free , zero defects. Cause and Effect diagrams and quality circles Taguchi loss function.

Q : Quest for excellence U : Understanding customers needs A : action to achieve customers appreciation L : Leadership- determination to be a leader I : Involving all people T : Team spirit to work for a common goal and Y : Yardstick to measure progress.
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MEANING OF QUALITY
Meaning of Quality

Producers Perspective

Consumers Perspective

Quality of Conformance
Production

Quality of Design Quality characteristics Price


Marketing

Conformance to specifications Cost

Fitness for Consumer Use

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Elements of TQM Concept


Continuous improvement Customer focus

TQM
Prevention Of defects Universal responsibility For quality
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Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle


4. Act
Institutionalize improvement; continue cycle.

1. Plan
Identify problem and develop plan for improvement.

3. Study/Check
Assess plan; is it working?

2. Do
Implement plan on a test basis.

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TQM TOOLS
a) Tools for Generating Ideas:
Check Sheet, Scatter Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram,

b) Tools to Organize the Data:


Pareto Charts, Flow Charts (Process Diagram), and

c) Tools for Identifying Problems:


Histogram, Statistical Process Control Chart

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TQM tools
1. 2.

Scatter diagram: Its used to determine whether a relationship exists between two variables Flow chart/ process map: These diagram show the flow of the process and services. It answers the question Who is the next Customer? Improvement can be accomplished by changing,reducing,combination, or eliminating steps. Standardized symbols are used by industrial engineers.

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TQM tools continued..


3. Histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies . 4. Cause and effect diagram/fishbone diagram: It was originated by Kaoru Ishikawa. It is simply a tree or hierarchy, showing how causes have causes. Its main use is to discover potential causes of unwanted problems.

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TQM tools continued..


5. Pareto chart: Vital few Trivial Many It was first evolved by Italian Economist Vilfredo Pareto. Its a technique of ordering causes to problems from the most to the least significant. 6. Stratification: It is a technique used to divide data into sub category or classification to provide useful insight into the problem. 7. Control charts: They are on line process control and is a type of run chart used for studying process performance over time in order to understand and reduce variation.

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Costs of Quality
1.
2. 3. 4.

PREVENTION COSTS APPRAISAL COSTS INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS EXTERNAL FAILURE COSTS

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TQM benefits
Image of organization improves. Reduction in inventory. Shorter lead time in design, manufacturing, procurement

service etc., Reduction in complaints. Customer satisfaction. Quality cost % to turnover reduction. Lower manufacturing cost. Reduction in deviation. Continuous improvement. Drastic reduction in defectives and number of defects.
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TQM GURUS
Edward Deming Walter A. Stewart

Joseph M. Juran

Armand V.Feigenbaum

Karou Ishikawa

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Edward Demings
14 PRINCIPLES
1.

2.
3. 4. 5.

Create Constancy of purpose for continual improvement of product and service. Reduce the acceptable levels of poor quality. Cease dependence on Inspection to achieve quality. End the Practice of awarding Business on Price tag alone. Improve constantly and for ever the system of production and service.
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14 PRINCIPLES Continued:
6. Institute training on the job 7. Adopt and Institute modern methods of supervision and Leadership 8. Drive out fear 9. Break down barriers between departments and individuals 10. Eliminate the use of slogans, posters and exhortations 11. Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas

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14 PRINCIPLES Continued:
12. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of the right to pride in workmanship 13. Institute a vigorous program of education of and retraining 14. Define top managements permanent commitment top ever improving quality and productivity.

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CROSBYS FOURTEEN STEPS TO QUALITY IMPROVEMNET


Management Commitment The quality improvement Plan Measurement The cost of quality Quality awareness Corrective Action Zero Defect planning Employee education Zero defects day

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CROSBYS FOURTEEN STEPS TO QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Contd.


Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality council Do it all over again

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ELEMENTS OF TQM
Top management commitment and involvement Customer involvement Design products for quality Design production processes for quality

Developing supplier partnership


Customer service, distribution, and installation Building teams of empowered employees

Benchmarking and continuous improvement

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QUALITY MANAGEMENT RECOGNITION


Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Deming Prize ISO 9000

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APPLYING TQM TO B-SCHOOL


Synergistic relationships. Continuous improvement and self-evaluation. A system of ongoing process. Leadership.

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TQM @ S.R.N ADARSH COLLEGE


Established in 1996. Started their PG Courses in 2001. They offer courses like MBA and PGDBM. It is an ISO 9001: 2000 certified college. They have applied for NAAC accreditation. They have also started Adarsh Business School.

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Quality objectives :-

Providing modern courses.


Improving the existing amenities. To upgrade the skills of teaching staff. Invite specialists in various fields and organize

seminars and lectures to provide additional knowledge to the students. To achieve good results in both UG and PG course at the university level examinations. To develop library as one of the best information resource centers.
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Quality management strategy


Quality manual
i) Quality systems manual. ii) Quality procedure manual.
Apex meetings once in every 4 months to review the

quality manual. Both internal as well as external audit. They hold at least 1 National conference every year.

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Contd They have recorded 100% pass percentage in PG


courses. They have formed 9 sub-committees to look into the quality maintenance cycle. Books and research papers have been often published by the management.

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Areas for improvement


All departments and process should be computerized by implementing ERP systems.
The placement cell should improve its efficiency. The college should provide good infrastructure to facilitate the students. The feedback forms from the students as well as the faculty should be considered seriously. Seminars and guest lectures should be conducted on a regular basis.
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SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIPS
Teachers are the suppliers and students are the customers

in management institution Good relationship between suppliers and customer Talent and experience is used for the efficient performance and production. Teachers and schools- learn and communicate in quality ways Invest to maximize the growth opportunities

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LEADERSHIP
The success of TQM is the responsibility of top

management. The context should be such that students can best achieve their potential through the continuous improvement that results from teachers and students working together.

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CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND SELFEVALUATION


Everyone in the organization must be dedicated to continuous improvement, personally and collectively . Within a Total Quality school setting, administrators work collaboratively with their customers .

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A SYSTEM OF ONGOING PROCESS


Must be viewed as a system, and the work people do within the system must be seen as ongoing processes. Quality speaks to working on the system, which must be examined to identify and eliminate the flawed processes that allow its participants to fail

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A QUALITY B-SCHOOL
A well established system
Good administrative setup Research Faculty with experience and industrial exposure Knowledge management and practical application Placement Infrastructure

students

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ADVANTAGES OF APPLIYING TQM IN EDUCATION


Great relationship between teachers and students Excellent placement opportunities Extensive and continuous improvement Enhances relationship between management and faculty World class management school Knowledge based education

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