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 Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence

and support among the people who are needed

to achieve organizational goals. (DuBrin, 1998)
 The process of influencing an organized group
toward accomplishing its goals (Roach &
Behling, 1984).

Leadership can exist in both formal and informal groups. In a formal setting,
such as within a large corporation, the leader of the group is usually
someone who has been appointed to a high position of authority. In an
informal setting, such as a group of friends, the leader is someone with
personal traits that simply tend to inspire respect.
Manager Vs. Leader
Factors of leadership

There are four major factors in leadership:

Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a
new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A
person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one
with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The
fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human
nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to
know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
Factors of leadership
You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you
can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is
successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be
uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your
superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you
"set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to
perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate
either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.

All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must
use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for
each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate
behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the
results may prove ineffective.

Leadership Involves an Interaction Between the

Leader, the Followers, and the Situation
Leadership Roles
1. Figurehead
2. Spokesperson
3. Negotiator
4. Coach
5. Team Builder
6. Team Player
7. Technical Problem Solver
8. Entrepreneur
The Activities of Successful & Effective
Description categories
Type of Activity
Derived from free Observation

Exchange Information
Routine Communication
Handling paperwork

Traditional Management Decision Making

Interacting with outsiders

Socializing /Politicking

Human Resource Management
Managing conflict
Transformational Leadership

 Transformational leadership is a process that

changes and transforms individuals.
 A transformational leader inspires his or her
team constantly with a shared vision of the
 Transformational leaders transform the
organization by developing vision, building
commitment, and empowering followers.
Transformational Leadership
Key Characteristics

 Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission,

instills pride, gains respect trust.
 Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses
symbols to focus efforts, expresses important
purposes in simple ways.
 Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence,
rationality, and careful problem solving.
 Individualized consideration: Gives personal
attention, treats each employee individually,
coaches, advises.
Charismatic Leadership
 in that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her
team, and is very energetic in driving others forward.
 charismatic leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than
in their team.
 charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs
long-term commitment.

Key Characteristics

Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and

A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the
status quo. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and
the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute
extraordinary vision to the leader.
Charismatic Leadership
Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in
terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an
understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force.
Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being
strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high
costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.
Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior
that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms.
When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in
Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as
agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.
Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic
assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to
bring about change.
Early Leadership Theories

1. Trait Theories
2. Behavioral Theories
3. Contingency Theories
Trait Theory
Definition of Trait Theory

Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality.

The first organized approach to studying leadership analyzed the
personal, psychological, and physical traits of strong leaders. The
trait approach assumed that some basic trait or set of traits
existed that differentiated leaders from non leaders. If those traits
could be defined, potential leaders could be identified.

Basic Assumptions of Trait Theory

1. People are born with inherited traits.

2. Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
3. People who make good leaders have the right combination
of traits.
Traits Skills
•Adaptable to situations •Clever (intelligent)
•Alert to social environment •Conceptually skilled
•Ambitious and achievement- •Creative
orientated •Diplomatic and tactful
•Assertive •Fluent in speaking
•Cooperative •Knowledgeable about group
•Decisive task
•Dependable •Organized administrative ability)
•Dominant (desire to influence •Persuasive
others) •Socially skilled
•Energetic (high activity level)
•Tolerant of stress
•Willing to assume responsibility.
Trait Theories
• No universal traits found that predict leadership
in all situations.
• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than
“strong” situations.
• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of
relationship of leadership and traits.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership
than distinguishing effective and ineffective
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn
traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders
actually do.

If success can be defined in terms of describable

actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people
to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn
then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'.

• Trait theory:
Leaders are born, not made.
• Behavioral theory:
Leadership traits can be taught.
Basic Assumptions of Behavioral Theories

•Leaders can be made, rather than are born.

•Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable

Various Behavioral theories of leadership

1. IOWA study
2. Managerial grids
 University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)
 Identified three leadership styles:
 Autocratic style: centralized authority, low
 Democratic style: involvement, high participation,
 Laissez-faire style: hands-off management
 Research findings: mixed results
 No specific style was consistently better for
producing better performance
 Employees were more satisfied under a democratic
leader than an autocratic leader
Autocratic (Directive)
•Leader tells “what, when, why, & how” of task
•Followers do what they’re told

Democratic (Participative)
•Leader seeks input about task from group
•Followers & leader are equal

Laissez-faire (Delegate)
•Leader lets followers make all decisions
•Followers do what they think is best
Autocratic leaders
•High productivity
•Hostility, aggression, blaming

Democratic leaders
•Fairly high productivity
•Camaraderie, creativity, consideration

Laissez-faire leaders
•Low productivity
•Demanding, argumentative
Managerial Grid
The Managerial Grid model by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton
is a behavioral leadership model.
Blake and Mouton found that a management behavior model
with three axes (concern for production, concern for people,
motivation) was a more accurate representation of reality. On
the grid, concern for production is represented on a one to
nine scale on the horizontal axis (x-axis). Concern for people
is represented on a one to nine scale on the vertical axis (y-

According to Blake and Mouton there is also a third axis:

Motivation, measured from negative (driven by fear) to
positive (driven by desire).
The Managerial Grid

1,9 9,9
High 9 Country club management Team management
Thoughtful attention needs of people Work accomplishment is from
for satisfying relationships leads to committed people, interdependence
8 A comfortable, friendly organization through a “common stake” in organization
purpose leads to relationship
atmosphere and work tempo of trust and respect
Concern for people

Organization Man Management
4 Adequate organization performance
possible through balancing the necessity to
get out work with maintaining
morale of the people at a satisfactory level
3 9,1
Impoverished Management
Efficiency in operations results
2 Exertion of minimum effort to get
from arranging conditions of
required work done is appropriate
work in such a way that human
Low to sustain organization membership
elements interfere to a minimal degree

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Low Concern for production High
Managerial Grid
Impoverished style (Low Production / Low People)

2. Country Club style (Low Production / High People)

3. Produce or Perish style (High Production / Low People)

• Middle-of-the-road style (Medium Production / Medium People).

• Team style (High Production / High People).

Benefits of the managerial Grid

 Using a model makes it easier to openly discuss behavior

and improvement actions.
 Using the Grid model makes the various leadership styles
measurable to a certain extent and allows more than two
competing options (X versus Y).

Limitations/ disadvantages of the managerial Grid

 There are more dimensions of leadership that can be

 The model basically neglects the significance of the

internal and external constraints, context, circumstances and

Leadership Styles
Leadership styles may be of relevance to a
variety of situations where there is a
requirement to manage others.  Effective
performance will depend on many factors
including the organizational culture in which
the individual is operating.

Authoritarian or Autocratic
Participative or Democratic
Delegative or Laissez-faire
This style is used when the leader tells her
employees what she wants done and how she
wants it done, without getting the advice of her
followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to
use it is when you have all the information to
solve the problem, you are short on time, and
your employees are well motivated. Some people
tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling,
using demeaning language, and leading by
threats and abusing their power. This is not the
authoritarian style...rather it is an abusive,
unprofessional style called bossing people
around. it has no place in a leaders repertoire.
The authoritarian style should normally only be
used on rare occasions. If you have the time and
want to gain more commitment and motivation
from your employees, then you should use the
This type of style involves the leader including
one or more employees in on the decision
making process (determining what to do and
how to do it). However, the leader maintains
the final decision making authority. Using this
style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a
sign of strength that your employees will
respect. This is normally used when you have
part of the information, and your employees
have other parts. Note that a leader is not
expected to know everything -- this is why you
employ knowledgeable and skillful employees.
Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows
them to become part of the team and allows
you to make better decisions.
Delegative (free reign)
In this style, the leader allows the employees to
make the decision. However, the leader is still
responsible for the decisions that are made.
This is used when employees are able to
analyze the situation and determine what
needs to be done and how to do it. You
cannot do everything! You must set priorities
and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style
to use so that you can blame others when
things go wrong, rather this is a style to be
used when you have the full trust and
confidence in the people below you. Do not
be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
Positive and Negative
 There is a difference in ways leaders approach their
employee. Positive leaders use rewards, such as
education, independence, etc. to motivate employees.
While negative employees emphasize penalties. While
the negative approach has a place in a leader's
repertoire of tools, it must be used carefully due to its
high cost on the human spirit.
 Negative leaders act domineering and superior with
people. They believe the only way to get things done is
through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without
pay, reprimand employees in front of others, etc. They
believe their authority is increased by freighting
everyone into higher lever of productivity. Yet what
always happens when this approach is used wrongly is
that morale falls; which of course leads to lower
 Also note that most leaders do not strictly use one or
another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging
from extremely positive to extremely negative. People
who continuously work out of the negative are bosses
while those who primarily work out of the positive are