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Industrial Automation

EE-403, Course Contents BEE- 7 A & C, Fall, 2013

Course Goals
Raise interest for industrial automation systems
Understand industrial control systems (purpose, structure)

Automation hierarchy
Be able to analyze a process and propose automation solutions

Course Title: Industrial Automation (EE-403)

Credit hrs: (3-1-4) Prerequisite(s): None

Instructor: Saleem Tariq

Office: Academic Block A, 1st floor Ext. 224 Office Hours: E-mail : Text Book: Handouts, Class Lectures Reference Book(s):
(i) Modern Control Technology: Components and Systems, 3 Ed. by Christopher Killian (ii) Pocket Guide on Industrial Engineering, Ed: Srinivas Medida, IDC technologies

Course Outline
Introduction to industrial automation, architecture of industrial automation, measurement system specifications, signal conditioning circuits, error and calibration, sensors (temperature, RPM meters, position, force, flow, tilt and acceleration), actuators, ADC/DACs, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition ( SCADA), safety instrumentation and future trends

Grading Policy
Assignments/ Quizzes: Mid Term: Labs: Term Project: Final: 10% 20% 20% 10% 40%

Lecture Plan
Week 1 Week 2 Introduction to Industrial Automation Architecture of Industrial Automation and measurement system specifications Signal conditioning Circuits, Errors and calibration Sensors (Temperature)

Week 3
Week 4

Week 5
Week 6

Sensors ( RPM meters, Position and Force)

Sensors (Flow, Tilt and Acceleration)

Week 7
Week 8

ADC/ DAC circuits

Trends in Instrumentations and Valve developments

Week 9

Mid Term Exam

1. This course is application of concepts studied in previous courses; students are advised to study from the reference books and develop a habit of consulting online resources.
2. Check your emails regularly as you will be provided with selected study material and assignments through this media. 3. A special feature of the course would be a Term project which will consolidate the course learning.

Ground Rules - I
Attendance in class is Mandatory You are expected to rise when instructor enters the class Time keeping Only one conversation! Keep your mobiles OFF!

Ground Rules-II
Listen for understanding Participate in class discussion Ask questions! Adhere to Air University Code of Conduct
Dress Code Ethical Behavior

Prerequisites for a Good Engineer

Basic Physics: Mathematics

I want to understand
I can make a model of my world I know how to calculate


I can structure

Systematic Work: I can plan I try various strategies to make things works

Team Work

We can discuss the problem and jointly come up with a solution.

Each one of you, should have a vision about himself, where he would like to be in..

Organization of the course

instrumentation: hardware:
o how is the state of a plant read and controlled

controllers: hardware and software

o how controllers operate and how they are programmed

industrial communication networks:

o how are real-time data exchanged, in the field and in the plant

application protocols for devices

o how do devices appear to the programmer and operator

operator interface and SCADA

o how do operators see the plant they supervise

Concerns for human safety and system hazards

Lesson Objectives
To define Automation and Control and explain the differences in the sense of the terms To explain the relation between Automation and Information Technology To underline the basic objectives of a manufacturing industry and explain how automation and control technologies relate to these To introduce the concept of a Product Life Cycle and explain how Automation and Control technologies relate to the various phases of the cycle

Definition of terms
In a general sense the term Industry is defined as follows. Definition: Systematic Economic Activity thatcould be related to Manufacture/Service/ Trade. In this course, we shall be concerned with Manufacturing Industries only.

Definition of Automation
Definition: Automation is a set of technologies that results in operation of machines and systems without significant human intervention and achieves performance superior to manual operation

A Definition from Encyclopaedia Britannica The application of machines to tasks once performed by human beings or, increasingly, to tasks that would otherwise be impossible. Although the term mechanization is often used to refer to the simple replacement of human labour by machines, automation generally implies the integration of machines into a self-governing system.

Controls vs Automation
1. Automation Systems may include Control Systems but the reverse is not true. Control Systems may be parts of Automation Systems. 2. The main function of control systems is to ensure that outputs follow the set points. However, Automation Systems may have much more functionality, such as computing set points for control systems, monitoring system performance, plant startup or shutdown, job and equipment scheduling etc.

Characteristics of Industrial Automation

A. Industrial Automation involves significant amount of hardware technologies, related to Instrumentation and Sensing, Actuation and Drives, Electronics for Signal Conditioning, Communication and Display, Embedded as well as Stand-alone Computing Systems etc. B. As Industrial Automation systems grow more sophisticated in terms of the knowledge and algorithms they use, as they encompass larger areas of operation comprising several units or the whole of a factory, or even several of them, and as they integrate manufacturing with other areas of business, such as, sales and customer care, finance and the entire supply chain of the business, the usage of IT increases dramatically.
C. However, the lower level Automation Systems that only deal with individual or , at best, a group of machines, make less use of IT and more of hardware, electronics and embedded computing.

Automation Systems
A. Industrial information systems are generally reactive in the sense that they receive stimuli from their universe of discourse and in turn produce responses that stimulate its environment. Naturally, a crucial component of an industrial information system is its interface to the world. B. Most of industrial information systems have to be real-time. The computation not only has to be correct, but also must be produced in time. An accurate result, which is not timely may be less preferable than a less accurate result produced in time. Therefore systems have to be designed with explicit considerations of meeting computing time deadlines. C. Many industrial information systems are considered mission-critical, in the sense that the malfunctioning can bring about catastrophic consequences in terms of loss of human life or property. Therefore extraordinary care must be exercised during their design to make them flawless. Fault-tolerance to emergencies due to hardware and software faults must often be built in.

Control Tasks

measure - command - control

Definition of Control
Definition: Control is a set of technologies that achieves desired patterns of variations of operational parameters and sequences for machines and systems by providing the input signals necessary.

Computer hard disk drive, showing disks and read/write head

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Courtesy of Quantum Corp.

The search for extraterrestrial life is being carried out with radio antennas like the one pictured here. A radio antenna is an example of a system with position controls.

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Peter Menzel.

Antenna azimuth position control system

a. system concept; b. detailed layout; c. schematic; d. functional block diagram

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Manual Control

Automatic Control

open loop:

Open loop and closed loop

on /off temperature temperature is imprecise, depends on ambient temperature and cooking quantity but time of heating can be modulated.



closed loop:
140 180 200



+ -

higher /lower

temperature closely controlled, requires measurement of the output variable (temperature)

temperature sensor

Block diagrams of control systems

a. open-loop system;

b. closedloop system

Discrete and continuous plants

discrete control (binary)

continuous control (analogue)

Depends on industrial process

Automotive Manufacturing Electronics Machinery

Textiles Pharmaceuticals Fine Chemical

Food & Beverage

Metals & Mining Water & Waste

Pulp & Paper Vehicles Petrochemicals Oil & Gas

source: ARC

Electrical Power

The main categories in industry

industry distinguishes the following categories of applications: "process control": continuous processes, associated with fluxes, e.g. sewage water treatment, petrochemical process, cement

"batch control": semi-continuous processes, associated with individual products, e.g. fine chemicals, pharmaceutical, brewery
"manufacturing": also called factory automation discrete processes, associated with transformation of parts, e.g. automobile industry, bottle-filling, packaging

Organization of Course
( Slide Courtesy EPA)
numbers refer to the chapter (EPA guide book)


real-time dependability

5 4


device access

9 3
2.2 2.3 2.1
communication networks

field devices, controllers

sensors, actors physical plant

Automation network view ( Slide Courtesy EPA)

SCADA level Operator
23 2 4 33 12 2

vertical Comm.

File Edit


4.3 communication
Control Bus


Control level

4.2 programmable
controllers Fieldbus direct I/O microPLCs Fieldbus

Field level


Sensor-Actuator Bus


transducers / actors