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Excel VBA Basics

Outline

Excel Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced

Excel Basic Elements


Each Row is designated by integer number

Column - characters uniquely designate each column.

Cell intersection of row and column. In the example the ID of the cell: B4

Excel Basic Data Types

Label anything that is just a text

My daughter is 3 years old! 50%, 3.5, 775$, 10, -7.8

Constant any type of number

Formula any math equation, always starts with an equal sign =

=5+3, =45*7-3

Excel Spreadsheet Example

Using Formulas in Excel


Assignment:

Suppose, we have a class of four students and we need to calculate an average of the three assignments they had for each one of them. Given the following spreadsheet:

Solution I
We have inserted absolute constants and invoked AVERAGE excel function

After update of cell B2


Can you see anything wrong?

Solution II Using Cell References

Solution II Using Cell References


Now lets add a constant factor! $A$8

Now lets continue the calculations - using copy

Select cell E2 and click <Ctrl> + C Starting from E3 and till E5 drag the mouse and select the needed group of cells Press <Ctrl> + P That is all!

Solution II using Excel Graphical User Interface


2. Click this button

1. Select a cell to be updated

Solution II using Excel Graphical User Interface


3. In the opened dialogue select the needed function

Solution II using Excel Graphical User Interface


5.Then with mouse select the needed cells

4. Go with mouse to the first argument (here Number1)

See how we refer to a range! 6. Finally click OK

Finally,

Using If Expression in Excel

=If(A2>1,Yes,No)
If it is true that the value in the cell A2 is greater then 1, then the value of current cell is Yes Otherwise (else), the value is No

Using Sin/Cos/Tan Expression in Excel

Sin, Cos, Tan formats:


for degrees formula = sin (angle * pi()/180), the argument angle is in degrees for radians formula = sin (angle), the argument angle is in radians

Formatting Cells

Formatting Cells cont.

Adding Graphs/Charts

Outline

Excel Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced

Using Macros

Now lets create a simple macro that formats a single cell


Changes its background Changes its font

Recording a new Macro

Recording a new Macro cont.

Recording the new Macro cont.


Working with Excel while recording the macro

Finishing the Macro

Running the Macro

Running the Macro cont.

The Output!

Looking inside the VB code of our Macro

What does the row mean???

Guess what does this Macro do? What is different now?

Outline

Excel Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced

VB example Hello World!

Running the Example

The Output

Creating User From

Using Toolbox
This is a label
This is a button

Using the Toolbox select a GUI element and by mouse-click place it on the frame

Adding Code to the Button


In the open Window fill-in the function

The name of the method was automatically generated CommandButton1 is the name of the button object Click type of the event of the object The method will be invoked whenever user clicks on the CommandButton1 button

Do you remember the code?

Running the code

The Output!!

Using Combo-Box

Add Source of range for the combo-box

Select The ComboBox

Add Code to the Combo Box

The output after user makes combo box selection

Outline

Excel Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced

Modules & Procedures

Module collection of logically related procedures grouped together Procedure a group of ordered statements enclosed by Sub and End Sub Function the same as a procedure, but also returns some value and is closed between Function and End Function key words

Procedure & Function Examples


Sub ShowTime)( Range("C1") = Now)( End Sub Function sumNo(x, y) sumNo = x + y End Function
The procedure places the current time inside cell C1

The function returns sum of two input numbers, whose values are in the parameter variables x & y

Calling procedures vs. calling If there are few functions sumNo functions,
Sub z(a) MsgBox a End Sub Sub x() Call z("ABC") End Sub Sub y() z "ABC End Sub
the full name of the function is needed

Sub ShowSum() MsgBox _ Module1.sumNo(3,5) End Sub


Function sumNo(x, y) sumNo = x + y End Function

Passing Arguments by Value or by Reference

Passing arguments by reference


Is the VBA default Means, if any changes happened to the argument variables, they will be preserved after the function/procedure finishes Is possible in VBA (by explicit definition) Means, the pre-calling state of the argument variables will be preserved after the procedure/function finishes

Passing arguments by value


Arguments by Ref/by Val. Examples


Sub TestPassing1() Dim y As Integer y = 50 AddNo1 y MsgBox y AddNo2 y MsgBox y End Sub
Sub AddNo1(ByRef x As Integer) x = x + 10 End Sub Sub AddNo2(x As Integer) x = x + 10 End Sub

public Sub TestPassing2() Dim y As Integer y = 50 AddNo3 y MsgBox y End Sub


private Sub AddNo3(ByVal x _ As Integer) x = x + 10 End Sub

Functions/Procedure Scope

Use public to allow any module to call the function/procedure Use private to make limited access to the function/procedure (only from the owning module)

VBA Variables

A variable is used to store temporary information within a Procedure, Module A variable name

Must start with letter and cant contain spaces and special characters (such as &, %, \) Cant be any excel keyword (if, while) Cant have identical name to any existing class (Wroksheet, Workbook)

VBA Data Type


Byte positive integer numbers (0:255) Integer integers (-32,768 : 32,767) Long 4-byte integer Currency for fixed-point calculations Single 2-byte floating-point numbers

VBA Data Type

Double double-precision floating-point numbers Date used to store dates and times as real numbers. String contains a sequence of characters

The Variables Advantage by Example


Sub NoVariable() Range("A1").Value = _ Range("B2").Value Range("A2").Value = _ Range("B2").Value * 2 Range("A3").Value = _ Range("B2").Value * 4 Range("B2").Value = _ Range("B2").Value * 5 End Sub
In VB the end of statement is in the end of line. To write the same statement in few lines use _ at the end of line!

Sub WithVariable() Dim _ iValue as Integer iValue = _ Range("B2").Value Range("A1").Value = _ iValue Range("A2").Value = _ iValue * 2 Range("A3").Value = _ iValue * 4 Range("B2").Value = _ iValue * 5 End Sub

Using Variables

Declaring Variables

Format: Dim varibaleName AS dataType Examples:


Dim myText As String Dim myNum As Integer Dim myObj As Range any numeric variable is zero any string variable (empty string) an Object variable is nothing (still the declaration will store space for the object!!!)

The default value of


Variant Data Type

In VB you dont have to declare variable before its usage

Then, VB will by itself declare such variable as Variant


Dim myVar as Variant

You can also declare variable as Variant

Variant means that the variable may contain any data type

The price is very high!!! any time VB access such variable, it will spend time on deciding what is its current type!

Variables Assignment

To assign a value to a Numeric or String type Variable, you simply use your Variable name, followed by the equals sign (=) and then the String or Numeric
To assign an Object to an Object type variable you must use the key word "Set"

Variables Assignment cont.


Sub ParseValue )( Dim sWord as String Dim iNumber as Integer Dim rCell as Range

Set rCell = Range("A1")


sWord = Range("A1").Text iNumber = Range("A1").Value End Sub

VBA Variables Scope & Lifecycle


The scope & lifecycle of a variable defines the code where the variable can be accessed and time when the stored data is kept inside the variable Procedure-Level

Module-Level

Variables defined inside procedures Can be accessed only inside the procedure and keep their data until the End statement of the procedure Defined in the top of a Module Any procedure inside the Module can access the variable The variable retains the values unless the Workbook closes Defined as Public in the top of a Module Can be accesses by any procedure in any module The variable retains the values unless the Workbook closes

Project-Level, Workbook Level, or Public Module-Level


VBA Variables Scope & Lifecycle cont.

Sub scopeExample() Dim x as Integer Procedure level variables x=5 End Sub Module level variables Dim y as Integer all the module procedures are here Project level variables Public z as Integer all the module procedures are here

Basic Excel Classes

Workbook: the class represents an Excel file Worksheet: represents a single worksheet Sheet: represents a single worksheet or chartsheet Cell: represents a single cell

VBA Entities by Example


A Current Workbook

A Cell A Range E2:E5 A current Worksheet

Excel Containers

Workbooks: a collection of objects of class Workbook Worksheets: a collection of objects of class Worksheet Sheets: a collection of Sheet objects Range: a range of objects of class Cell

Referencing the Objects This will take the Examples whole square
Sub Test1() Worksheets("Sheet1").Range("A10", "B12") = "Hello Worksheets(1).Range("A13,B14") = "World!" End Sub
Two equal ways to refer Sheet1 The range of two cells between the two cells

The Output

Which Workbook was Used?

What does this procedure do?


Sub ShowWorkSheets)( Dim mySheet As Worksheet For Each mySheet In Worksheets MsgBox mySheet.Name Next mySheet End Sub

The Output!

How many times the user will click on the button?

Referencing Cells

Cells indexing format:

Cells(row, column), where both row and column


are given as integers (starting from 1) Cells(index) see the next slide

Following expressions are equivalent and refer to the cell A1 in the currently active sheet:

ActiveSheet.Range.Cells(1,1) Range.Cells(1,1) Cells(1,1)

Referencing Cells with Offset


Range(B1:F5).Cells(12) = XYZ
See how we calculate cell 12 In the given range!

Referencing Cells with Offset cont.


ActiveCell.Offset(4, 5) = 1
This is the currently active cell The assignment result

Few methods/properties of Excel Classes


Workbooks.Close closes the active workbook Workbooks.Count returns the number of currently open workbooks Range(A1) is the same as Range(A1).Value Worksheets(1).Column(A:B).AutoFit Worksheets(1).Range(A1:A10).Sort_ Workbooks.Open fileName:=Hello.xls, password:=kukuriku

Defining and Assigning a new Object of type Range


Dim myRange as Range Set myRange = Range(A1:A10)

VBA Arrays

Suppose, we want to keep a collection of all the books that we loan, Or we want to keep lists of tasks for all the days of the week

The nave solution is to keep a lot of variables Another solution is to create array keeping the whole collection together

Declaring object of type Array


Dim LoanBooks(3)
The array declaration. The size must be defined here!

LoanBooks(1) = Winnie The Pooh LoanBooks(2) = Adventures of Huckleberry Finn LoanBook(3) = Frankenstein

Multidimensional Arrays
Dim WeekTasks(7,2) WeekTasks(1,1) = To buy milk WeekTasks(7,1) = To dance MsgBox WeekTasks(1,1) & & & vbCrLf & WeekTasks(2,1)

What will the code print?

WeekTasks(1,2) _

Resizing the Arrays

There are two ways to resize the existing array:

ReDim LoanBooks(7) will erase the old values ReDim Preserve LoanBooks(7) will preserve values in indexes 1-3

Upper & Lower Index Bounds of an Array

Dim A(1 To 100, 0 To 3, -3 To 4)


UBound(A, 1) will return 100 UBound(A, 2) will return 3 UBound(A, 3) will return 4 LBound(A, 1) will return 1 LBound(A, 2) will return 0 LBound(A, 3) will return -3

Write code calculating the size of each one of the sub-arrays

VBA Control Structures - If

If Age >= 18 Then Status = "Adult" End If If Age >=18 Then Status = Adult Vote = Yes Else Status = Child Vote = No End If

VBA Control Structures - If

If Age >= 18 Then MsgBox "You can vote" ElseIf Age >=22 and Age < 62 Then MsgBox You can drive End If

VBA Control Structures Select

Select Case Grade Case Is >= 90 LetterGrade = Case Is >= 80 LetterGrade = Case Is >= 70 LetterGrade = Case Is >= 60 LetterGrade = Case Else LetterGrade = End Select

"A" "B"

"C"
"D" E"

VBA Control Structures Loops


For i = 10 to 1 Step -2 Cells(i, 1) = AB Next i i=1 Do While i =< 10 Cells(i, 1) = i i=i+1 Loop i=1 Do Cells(i, 1) = i i =i+1 Loop While i < 11

Test yourself! What does the procedure do?


Sub CellsExample)( For i = 1 To 5 For j = 1 To 5 Cells(i, j) = "Row " & i & " Col " & j Next j Next i End Sub