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Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology

Subject Code : 150702 Name Of Subject : COMPUTER NETWORK Name of Unit : INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKS

Topic : OSI MODEL , TCP/IP MODEL AND COMPARISON


OF OSI & TCP/IP MODEL

Name of Student :Agrawal Swapnil J.

CONTENTS
OSI MODEL
THE OSI MODEL DIFFERENT LAYERS OF OSI REFERENCE MODEL EXCHANGE OG INFORMATION IN OSI MODEL OSI FEATURES

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

CONTENTS
TCP/IP MODEL
INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP LAYERS IN TCP/IP TCP/IP STACK TCP/IP ENCAPSULATION TCP/IP PROTOCOL

COMPARISON OF OSI & TCP/IP MODEL

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

THE OSI MODEL


Established in 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards. Almost three-fourths of countries in the world are represented in the ISO. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

The OSI model

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

OSI Layers
OSI Model Data unit Layer 7. Application Host layers Data 6. Presentation 5. Session Segments Packet Media layers Frame Bit 4. Transport 3. Network 2. Data Link 1. Physical Function Network process to application Data representation, encryption and decryption Innermost communication End-to-end connections and reliability, Flow control

Path determination and logical addressing


Physical addressing

Media, signal and binary transmission

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

OSI Layers

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer1: Physical Layer


The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a physical medium.
This includes the layout of pin, voltages, cable specification, hubs, repeaters, network adapters, host bus adapters, and more.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 2: Data Link Layer


The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-topoint and point-to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers by IEEE.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 3: Network Layer


The Network Layer performs network routing functions, perform fragmentation and reassembly, report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layersending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 3: Network Layer


The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 4: Transport Layer


The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/documentation, and error control.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 5: Session Layer


The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes check pointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 6: Presentation Layer


This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa.
This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer 7: Application Layer


The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. Application layer functions typically include: identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, synchronizing communication.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

An exchange using the OSI model

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Summary of OSI Layers

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

OSI Feature
Open system standards over the world
Rigorously defined structured, hierarchical network model Complete description of the function Provide standard test procedures
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Introduction TCP/IP
The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layers in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Original Layers (Practically)


Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Layers According to Book (Theoretically)


Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

The Upper Layers


OSI
Application (Layer7) Presentation (Layer6) Session (Layer 5)

TCP / IP
Application

Session Presentation Application


Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

The Session Layer


The Session layer permits two parties to hold ongoing communications called a session across a network. Not found in TCP/IP model In TCP/IP , its characteristics are provided by the TCP protocol. (Transport Layer)

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

The Presentation Layer


The Presentation Layer handles data format information for networked communications. This is done by converting data into a generic format that could be understood by both sides. Not found in TCP/IP model In TCP/IP, this function is provided by the Application Layer.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

The Application Layer


The Application Layer is the top layer of the reference model. It provides a set of interfaces for applications to obtain access to networked services as well as access to the kinds of network services that support applications directly. OSI - FTAM,VT,MHS,DS,CMIP TCP/IP - FTP,SMTP,TELNET,DNS,SNMP Although the notion of an application process is common to both, their approaches to constructing application entities is different.

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

TCP/IP Transport Layer


Defines two standard transport protocols: TCP and UDP TCP implements a reliable data-stream protocol connection oriented UDP implements an unreliable data-stream connectionless TCP provides reliable data transmission

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

TCP/IP Stack

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

TCP/IP Encapsulation

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Layer

Protocol

TCP/IP Some Protocol

DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP , POP3, SIP, SMTP, SMPP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, Echo, RTP, P NRP, rlogin, ENRP Application Routing protocols like BGP and RIP which run over TCP/UDP, may also be considered part of the Internet Layer. Transport TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, RSVP IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, and ICMPv6 Internet OSPF for IPv4 was initially considered IP layer protocol since it runs per IP-subnet, but has been placed on the Link since RFC 2740.

Link

ARP, RARP, OSPF (IPv4/IPv6), IS-IS, NDP

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Comparison of Both Layers


OSI Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Transport Layer
TCP , UDP , ...

TCP/IP

Application Layer TELNET, FTP, SMTP, POP3, SNMP, NNTP, DNS,NIS, NFS, HTTP, ...

Network Layer
Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Internet Layer
IP , ICMP, ARP, RARP, ...

Link Layer
FDDI, Ethernet, ISDN, X.25,...

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Comparison of TCP/IP and OSI model

Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK

Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Comparing Transport for both Models


The features of UDP and TCP defined at TCP/IP Transport Layer correspond to many of the requirements of the OSI Transport Layer. There is a bit of bleed over for requirements in the session layer of OSI since sequence numbers, and port values can help to allow the Operating System to keep track of sessions, but most of the TCP and UDP functions and specifications map to the OSI Transport Layer.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

Comparing Transport for both Models


The TCP/IP and OSI architecture models both employ all connection and connectionless models at transport layer. However, the internet architecture refers to the two models in TCP/IP as simply connections and datagram's. But the OSI reference model, with its penchant for precise terminology, uses the terms connectionmode and connection-oriented for the connection model and the term connectionless-mode for the connectionless model.
Sub:-COMPUTER NETWORK Topic:-OSI,TCP/IP MODEL & COMPARISON

THANK YOU

REFERENCES
Books:1.COMPUTER NETWORKS Fourth Edition by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

Web Resources:1.Google 2.Wikipedia

ANY QUERIES???