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Summer training report on diesel locomotive works Varanasi

SUBMITTED BY
SAURABH SINGH ME 2nd Year

BBS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY ALLAHABAD

Introduction
It is a production unit owned by Indian railways , for which it manufactures

dieselelectric locomotive and its spares parts.

To meet the increased transportation needs of the Indian railways it was

established in collaboration with M\s ALCO( American Locomotive Company), USA.


Founded in 1961, the D.L.W. rolled out its first locomotive three year later, on

January 3, 1964. It manufactures locomotives which are variants based on the original ALCO design dating to 1960s and the GM EMD design of the 1990s.
It has evolved into an integrated dieselelectric locomotive manufacturing

plant, capable of building all components of the locomotive in-house, including the engines, super structures, and fabricated bogies and under frames.

Diesels aDvantages over steam


They can safely be operated by one person, making them ideal for

switching/shunting duties in yards.


The operating environment is much more attractive, being much quieter, fully

weatherproof and without the dirt and heat that is an inevitable part of operating a steam locomotive.
Steam locomotives require intensive maintenance, lubrication and cleaning

before, during and after use.


The thermal efficiency of steam was considerably less than that of Diesel

engines.

Diesel-electric locomotive
In a diesel-electric locomotive, the diesel engine drives an electrical

generator or alternator whose output provides power to the traction motors. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The important components of diesel-electric propulsion are :
Diesel engine ( 16 cylinder , two stroke )
The main generator or alternator Traction motor Control system consisting of the engine governor

Electrical or electronic component to control or modify the electrical supply

to the traction motions Inverters

basic concepts
Diesel engine
Alternator rectifier

governor

Traction control

Front traction motor bogie

Rear traction motor bogie

alternator
Alternators generate electricity by the same principle as DC generators, namely, when the magnetic field around a conductor changes, a current is induced in the conductor according to faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

Synchronous speed
The output frequency of an alternator depends on the number of poles and

the rotational speed. The speed corresponding to a particular frequency is called the synchronous speed for that frequency.
Poles Rpm at 50 Hz Rpm at 60 Hz

3000

3600

4
6 8 10 12

1500
1000 750 600 500

1800
1200 900 720 600

14

428.6

514.3

Governor
A device used to measure and regulate the speed of an engine. The microcontroller based governor consists of a control unit mounted in

the drive cab and an actuator unit mounted on the engine.


The governor controls the engine speed based on throttle handle position. Engine RPM is measured by a Tacho generator or engine speed sensor

mounted on the engine.


Digital PID control is used to control the fuel rack position dynamically ,

based on the selected notch on throttle handle and measure engine RPM . A steeper motor drive is used to control the fuel rack of diesel engine .

A PID controller attempts to correct the error between a measured

process variable and a desired set point by calculating and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly and rapidly, to keep the error minimal.
The governor also controls the electrical load on the engine, so as to

limit horsepower at each notch to a present level, through an electrical interface with the excitation system of the locomotive.
Air pressure is measured through a pressure sensor mounted in air

manifold, and movement of fuel rack is limited as a function of this pressure so as to prevent incomplete combustion, black smoke, excessive engine temperature, fuel wastage etc.
Lube oil pressure is continuously monitored and engine is shut down if

the lube oil pressure is less than the specified pressure so as to protect the engine from damage due to malfunctioning of lube oil pump etc.

Control unit features


No need of regular maintenance. Effective control for complete combustion of fuel improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollution. Continuous display of engine status parameters.

Online fault diagnostics and fault message display.

Actuator unit features

16 bit microcontroller based design Steeper motor used for high precision position control of fuel rack Digital PID control.

Tuning for each individual engine is not required.

Traction
Traction refers to the maximum frictional force that can be produced

between surfaces without slipping.


Coefficient of traction: The coefficient of traction is defined as the

usable force for traction divided by the weight on the running gear (wheels, tracks etc) i.e. Usable Traction = coefficient of Traction x Weight As the coefficient of traction refers to two surfaces which are not slipping relative to one another it is the same as Coefficient of static friction.

Traction motor
Electric motor providing the primary rotational

torque of a machine, usually for conversion into linear motion.


DC series-wound motors, running on

approximately 600 volts.


The availability of high-powered

semiconductors such as thyristors has now made practical the use of much simpler, higherreliability AC induction motors.

Types of traction
1. DC Traction: employed until the late 20th century in diesel-electric traction units.
With DC, the most popular line voltages for overhead wire supply systems

have been 1,500 and 3,000.


The disadvantages of DC are that expensive substations are required at

frequent intervals.
The low-voltage, series-wound, DC motor is well suited to railroad traction,

being simple to construct and easy to control.

2. AC Traction: Three-phase AC motor traction became practicable in the 1980s. With AC, especially with relatively high overhead-wire voltages (10,000 volts
or above), fewer substations are required.
With commercial-frequency, AC systems, there are two practical ways of taking

power to the locomotive driving wheels: 1. By a static rectifier on the locomotive to convert AC supply into DC at low voltage to drive standard DC traction motors 2. By a converter system to produce variable-frequency current to drive AC motors Thyristor or chopper are used to control the current supply to the motor.

bogie
A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In

mechanics terms, a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle.


Usually the train floor is at a level above the

bogies, but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies.

Bogies serve a number of purposes:

1. To support the rail vehicle body 2. To run stably on both straight and curved track 3. To ensure ride comfort by absorbing vibration, and minimizing centrifugal forces when the train runs on curves at high speed

Usually two bogies are fitted to each carriage, wagon or locomotive, one at

each end. Most bogies have two axles as it is the simplest design, but some cars designed for extremely heavy loads have been built with up to five axles per bogie.

rectifiers
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts AC to DC, a process known

as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals.
A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is

known as an inverter.
Rectifiers are of two types:

a) half wave rectifier b) full wave rectifier

cranes
A crane is a lifting machine, generally equipped with a winder (also called a wire rope drum), wire ropes or chains and sheav es, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.

General characteristics
Used to move loads over variable (horizontal and vertical) paths within a

restricted area
Used when there is insufficient (or intermittent) flow volume such that the

use of a conveyor cannot be justified


Provide more flexibility in movement than conveyors

Engine testing
types of testing

Lubricating oil testing

Lubrication is done for better performance of the engine parts. testing is done by checking the circulation of lubricant oil. For rotating parts checking is done by seeing the returning path of the oil i.e. checking not only the forward path but also the returning path. RR40 is used as lubricating oil.

water testing
Water acts as a coolant for moving part of the engine because constant

movement or rotation causes various parts to heat up and water working as coolant cooled down the concerned part.

Load testing
For load testing electrical load is provided to the engine. If there is any abnormal sound then the engine is again tested for lubrication so that any flaw which is there can be removed.

DWG2
DWG2 class 3100 hp diesel electric locomotive AC-DC transmission,

powdered with D.L.W. built 16 cylinder ALCO251C diesel engines is exclusively designed for heavy freight service.
High adhesion two stage suspension design trucks minimize weight transfer

and provide a higher traction effort and excellent riding quality.


WDG2 is popular for the low and easy maintenance at extended periods,

reduced noise and exhaust emission, fuel saving safe operation.

General characteristics
Installed Power input to traction under site condition Gauge

3100 hp 2750 hp 1676 mm

Principle dimension
Locomotive weight Nominal axel load Wheel diameter

Maximum starting tractive effort


Fuel tank capacity Max speed

123000 kg 20500 kg 1092 mm 37884 kg 6000 liters 100 km/hr

Engine test operation sequence


Base inspection under screen and fitting over screen. Water circulation. Lube oil filling and check deflection crank shaft. Lube oil circulation. Pre run on no load 3 to 5 times of duration 10 to 30 min each 400 rpm. Intermediate runs 12 runs of 30 min duration each from 400 to 1000 rpm. Check over speed trip of recheck 3 times. Check bake in nozzles and set tapped clearance. Inspection before fist hour performance. First hour performance on full load. Base inspection. Second hour performance on full load. Attend defects of first hour performance. Final base inspection. Check engine deficiencies. Engine clearance.

Thank you