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ANTIDERIVATIVES

(INTEGRAL)
THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL AND THE
BASIC INTEGRATION FORMULAS
OBJECTIVES:

know the relationship between


differentiation and integration;

identify and explain the different parts of the


integral operation; and

perform basic integration by applying the


power formula and the properties of the
indefinite integrals.

A function F is called an antiderivative (or


integral) of the function f on a given open
interval if F(x) = f(x) for every value of x in the
interval.
DEFINITION: ANTIDERIVATIVE (INTEGRAL)
For example, the function is an
antiderivative of on
interval because for each x in this
interval .
3
3
1
) ( x x F
2
) ( x x f
) , ( +
) (
3
1
) ( '
2 3
x f x x
dx
d
x F
1
]
1

However, is not the only


antiderivative of f on this interval. If we add any
constant C to , then the function

3
3
1
) ( x x F
3
3
1
x
) ( 0
3
1
) ( '
2 3
x f x C x
dx
d
x G +
1
]
1

+
In general, once any single antiderivative is
known, the other antiderivatives can be obtained
by adding constants to the known derivative.
Thus,
are all derivatives of .

2
3
1
, 5
3
1
, 2
3
1
,
3
1
3 3 3 3
+ + x x x x
2
) ( x x f
Theorem If F(x) is any antiderivative of f(x) on
an open interval, then for any constant C the
function F(x)+C is also an antiderivative on that
interval. Moreover, each antiderivative of f(x) on
the interval can be expressed in the form F(x)+C
by choosing the constant C appropriately.

DEFINITION: THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL
The process of finding antiderivatives is
called antidifferentiation or
integration. Thus, if
then integrating (or antidifferentiating) the
function f(x) produces an antiderivative of
the form F(x)+C. To emphasize this
process, we use the following integral
notation
[ ] ) ( ) ( x f x F
dx
d

+ C x F dx x f ) ( ) (
where:

The expression is called an


indefinite
integral.

is called an integral sign

the function is called the


integrand

and the constant C is called the


constant of
integration

dx x f ) (

) (x f
dx indicates that x is the variable of integration.
Some of the properties of the indefinite
integral and basic integration formulas, which
need no proof from the fact that these
properties are also known properties of
differentiation are listed below.
Properties of Indefinite Integral and Basic
Integration Formula:
1 ;
1
.
) ( ... ) ( ) ( )] ( .... ) ( ) ( [ .
) ( ) ( ) ( .
.
1
3 2 1 2 1
+
+

t t t t t t
+
+
+

n C
n
x
dx x iv
dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f x f x f iii
C x cF dx x f c dx x cf ii
C x dx i
n
n
n
( )
( ) dy
y
y
y dx x
dx x x dx x

,
_

+
3
2
3
2
2
4
2
1
. 4 2 3 . 3
2 3 4 . 2 5 . 1
2
Examples:
Evaluate the following integrals.
( )
dm m m
dx x x x
dx
x
x x
x
dx x x
dz
z
z
e

+ +
+ + +

,
_


+
+
+
6 6
3 2 3
5
3
3
2 . 10
27 54 36 8 . 9
4 7
. 8
2 . 7
1
1
. 6

HOMEWORK # 1
( )
( ) dt a t
dz z z
z
t
dt
dy y y
dx x x
3
3
4
3
3 2
5
1
3
2
2 3
5 . 5
4
7
. 4
. 3
4 4 . 2
3 2 5 . 1

,
_

,
_

+
+

Evaluate the following integral.