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Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 1

BOLTED CONNECTIONS
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 2
Introduction
Bolted Connections
Bolts and Bolting
Force Transfer Mechanism
Failure of Connections

In shear
In tension
Combined shear and tension
Block shear


CONTENTS
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 3
INTRODUCTION
Designed more conservatively than members because they are more
complex to analyse and discrepancy between analysis and design is
large

In case of overloading, failure in member is preferred to failure in
connection

Connections account for more than half the cost of structural steel
work

Connection design has influence over member design

Similar to members, connections are also classified as idealised types

Effected through rivets, bolts or weld

Codal Provisions

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 4
Shear Connections
a) Lap Connection b) Butt Connection
support
(a)
(b)
Tension Connection and Tension plus Shear Connection
TYPES OF CONNECTIONS -!
Single
shear
Double
shear
Classification based on type of force in the bolts
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 5
BOLTS AND BOLTING
Bolt Grade: Grade 4.6 :- f
u
= 40 kgf/mm
2
and f
y
= 0.6*40 = 24 kgf/mm
2

Bolt Types: Black, Turned & Fitted, High Strength Friction Grip
Black Bolts:
usually Gr.4.6,
made snug tight,
ductile and cheap,
only static loads
Turned & Fitted;
Gr.4.6 to 8.8,
Close tolerance drilled holes,
0.2% proof stress
HSFG Bolts:
Gr.8.8 to 10.9,
less ductile,
excellent under dynamic/fatigue loads
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 6
Bolt Shear Transfer Free Body Diagram
(a) Bearing Connection
(b) Friction Connection
T
Frictional Force T
Clamping Force, P
O

Bearing stresses
Tension
in bolt
T
T
T
Clamping Force, P
O

FORCE TRANSFER MECHANISM
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 7
snug-tight
position
turn
position
Tightening of HSFG bolts
Feeler gauge
TIGHTENING OF HSFG BOLTS
1) Turn-of-nut Tightening
2) Calibrated Wrench Tightening
3) Alternate Design Bolt Installation
4) Direct Tension Indicator Method
(a) Standard (b) Oversized
(c )Short Slot
(d) Long slot
Hole types for HSFG bolts
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 8
FAILURE OF CONNECTIONS
(a) Shearing of Bolts
(b) Bearing on Bolts
(c) Bearing on Plates
Zone of
plastification
Fig. 9 Shear Connections with Bearing Bolts
P
s
= p
s
A
s
where A
s
= 0.8A
P
bb
= p
bb
d t
P
bs
= p
bs
d t s e t p
bs
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 9

10.3.2 Shear capacity of bolt

( )
mb
/
sb
A
s
n
nb
A
n
n
u
f
sb
V + =
3
10.3.1.1 Reduction factor in shear for Long Joints
1.0
lj
0.75 but
/200d)
j
(l 1.075
lj

s s
= -
10.3.1.2 Reduction factor in shear for Large Grip Lengths
|
lg
=8 d /(3 d+l
g
)
10.3.2.3 Reduction factor for Packing Plates
|
pk
=(1 - 0.0125 t
pk
)
10.3 Bearing Type Bolts
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 10
10.3.3 Bearing Capacity of bolt on any ply



10.3.4 Tension Capacity



10.3.5 Bolt subjected to combined shear and tension


10.3 Bearing Type Bolts
V
sb
= (2.5 d t f
u
)/
mb

T
b
=(0.90 f
ub
A
n
)/
mb
< (f
yb
A
sb
(
m1
/
m0
))/
mb

0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
nd
T
e
T
sd
V
V
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 11
FAILURE OF CONNECTIONS-1
Shear Connections with HSFG Bolts
(a) Slip Resistance
(b) Bearing on Plates
K
h
=1.0 (clearance hole)
= 0.45 (untreated surfaces)
F
o
= proof load
V
sf
= (
f
n
e
K
h
F
o
)/
mf

V
bf
= (2.2 d t f
up
) /
mf
< (3 d t f
yp
)/ /
mf
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 12
Where,

f
= coeff. of friction (slip factor) as in Table 10.2 (
f
< 0.55)
n
e
= number of effective interfaces offering frictional resistance to slip
K
h
= 1.0 for fasteners in clearance holes
= 0.85 for fasteners in oversized and short slotted holes
= 0.7 for fasteners in long slotted holes loaded parallel to the slot.

mf
= 1.10 (if slip resistance is designed at service load)

mf
= 1.25 (if slip resistance is designed at ultimate load)

F
o
= minimum bolt tension (proof load) at installation ( 0.8 A
sb
f
o
)
A
sb
= shank area of the bolt
f
o
= proof stress (= 0.70 f
ub
)

Note: V
ns
may be evaluated at a service load or ultimate load using
appropriate partial safety factors, depending upon whether slip resistance
is required at service load or ultimate load.
10.4.1 Slip resistance
V
sf
= (
f
n
e
K
h
F
o
)/
mf

10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 13
TABLE 10.2 TYPICAL AVERAGE VALUES FOR
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (
f
)
Clean mill scale

0.33

Sand blasted surface

0.48

Red lead painted surface

0.1

Treatment of surface

Coefficient
of friction
(
f
)

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 14
10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting
10.4.2 Bearing capacity


10.4.3 Tension capacity



10.4.4 Combined Shear and Tension


Reduction factor in shear for Long Joints will apply here

V
bf
= (2.2 d t f
up
) /
mf
< (3 d t f
yp
)/ /
mf
T
f
=(0.9 f
u
A)/ /
mf

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 15
(b) HSFG
Connection
Bearing type
connection
2T

T

T

2T

T
o
T
o
T
o
+AT T
o
+AT
Proof Load
Po
Bolt
force
B kN
Applied load 2T (kN)
HSFG
Bearing
type
( c) External Tension
versus bolt force
BOLTS UNDER TENSION AND PRYING EFFECT
(d) Prying Effect
Q Q
B
A
b
n
T+Q
2T
T+Q
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 16
10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting
10.4.5 Prying Force




(
(
(

=
2
v
l
e
l 27
4
t
e
b
o
f
e
T
e
l 2
v
l
Q
|

| = 2 for non-pretensioned and 1 for pretensioned
= 1.5 for LSM
b
e
= effective width of flange per pair of bolts
(Conti.)
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 17
Bolt strengths

Bolt grade

4.6

8.8

Shear strength p
s


160

375

Bearing strength p
bb


435

970

Tension strength p
t


195

450

Steel grade

ST42S

Gr.43

Gr.50

Bearing bolts p
bs


418

460

550

HSFG bolts p
bg


650

825

1065

Table 1 Bolt Strengths in Clearance Holes in MPa
Table 2 Bearing Strengths of Connected Parts in MPa
DESIGN STRENGTHS FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 18
10.5.9 Stresses due to Individual forces


10.5.10 Combination of stresses
10.5.10.1 Fillet welds



Combined bearing, bending and shear

w t
a
l t
P
q or f =


2
q 3
br
f
b
f
2
br
f
2
b
f
e
f + + + =
mw
u
f
q
a
f
e
f
3
2
3
2
s + =
(Conti.)
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 19
10.2 Fasteners spacing and edge distance
10.2.1 Minimum Spacing - 2.5 times the nominal diameter
10.2.2 Maximum Spacing - shall not exceed 32t or 300 mm,
whichever is less, where t is thickness of the thinner plate

10.2.2.2 pitch shall not exceed 16t or 200 mm, in tension members
and 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less, in compression members

10.2.3 Edge and End Distances minimum edge shall be not less
than that given in Table 10.1. maximum edge distance should not
exceed 12 tc, where c = (250/f
y
)
1/2


10.2.4 Tacking Fasteners spacing in line not exceeding 32t or 300
mm If exposed to the weather, 16 t or 200 mm
max. spacing in tension members 1000 mm
max. spacing in compression members 600 mm
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 20
GENERAL ISSUES IN CONNECTION DESIGN
M = Td
Standard Connections (a) moment
connection (b) simple connection
e
V
T
C
d V
(a) (b)
Assumptions in traditional analysis
Connection elements are assumed to
be rigid compared to the connectors
Connector behaviour is assumed to
be linearly elastic
Distribution of forces arrived at by
assuming idealized load paths
Provide stiffness according to the
assumed behaviour
ensure adequate ductility and rotation
capacity
provide adequate margin of safety

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 21
Analysis of Bolt Groups
Combined Shear and Moment in-Plane
Combined Shear and Moment out-of-plane
Beam and Column Splices
Beam to Column Connections
Beam to Beam Connections
Truss Connections
Fatigue Behaviour

CONTENTS -1
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 22
Concentric Connections
(a)
(b)
Moment Connections
(a)
(b)
TYPES OF CONNECTIONS
Classification based on type of resultant force transferred
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 23
COMBINED SHEAR AND MOMENT IN PLANE
Bolt group eccentrically
loaded in shear
u
P
r
i

R
mi

O
x
y
Bolt shear due to P
x
and P
y

R
xi
= P
x
/n and R
yi
= P
y
/n
M = P
x
y + P
y
x
R
mi
= k r
i
M
i
= k r
i
2
MR = E k r
i
2
= k E r
i
2
Bolt shear due to M
R
mi
=M r
i
/E r
i
2

( ) ( ) | |
2 2
sin cos
i mi yi i mi xi i
R R R R R u u + + + =

(
(

+
+ +
(
(

+
+ =

2
2 2
2
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
i
y
i i
i x
i
y x
Mx
n
P
y x
My
n
P
R
Combined shear
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 24
COMBINED SHEAR AND MOMENT OUT-OF-PLANE
Bolt group resisting out-of-plane moment
T
i

d
l
i
L
i

NA
d/6
L
i

(a) (b) (c)
C
T
i
= kl
i
where k = constant

M = E T
i
L
i
= k E l
i
L
i


T
i
= Ml
i
/E l
i
L
i


Shear assumed to be shared equally and bolts
checked for combined tension+(prying)+shear
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 25
BEAM AND COLUMN SPLICE
Bolted Beam Splice
(a)Conventional
Splice
(b) End-Plate
Splice
Strength, stiffness and ease in erection
Assumptions in
Rolled-section
& Plate Girders
Column Splices bearing type or HSFG moment splices
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 26
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS
(a) Simple transfer only shear at nominal eccentricity
Used in non-sway frames with bracings etc.
Used in frames upto 5 storeys

(b) Semi-rigid model actual behaviour but make analysis
difficult (linear springs or Adv.Analysis). However lead
to economy in member designs.

(c) Rigid transfer significant end-moments undergoing
negligible deformations. Used in sway frames for
stability and contribute in resisting lateral loads and
help control sway.
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 27
V
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS
Simple beam-to-column connections a) Clip and seating angle
b) Web cleats c) Curtailed end plate
e
(a) (b) (c)
(a) Economical when automatic saw and drill lines are available
Check end bearing and stiffness of seating angle
Clip angle used for torsional stability
(b) If depth of cleats < 0.6d design bolts for shear only
(c) Eliminates need to drill holes in the beam. Limit depth and thickness
t < |/2 (Gr.8.8) and |/3 (Gr.4.6)
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 28
BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS
Rigid beam-to-column connections a) Short end plate
b) Extended end plate c) Haunched
column
web
stiffeners
diagonal
stiffener
web
plate
(a) (b) (c)
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 29
BEAM-TO-BEAM AND
TRUSS CONNECTIONS
(a) Apex Connection
Truss Connections
(b) Support connection
Gusset
Plate
Splice
plate
Gusset
Plate
e
support
Beam-beam connections similar to beam-column connections
Moment continuity may be obtained between secondary beams
Check for torsion in primary beams
Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 30
FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR
Fatigue leads to initiation and growth of cracks under fluctuating stresses
even below the yield stress of the material (High-cycle fatigue)

Fatigue cracks grow from points of stress concentrations
To avoid stress concentrations in bolted connections
Use gusset plates of proper shape
Use match drilling
Use HSFG bolts

Fatigue also depends on range of stress fluctuations and reversal of stress
pre-tensioned HSFG avoid reversals but lead to fretting corrosion

Fatigue design carried out by means of an S-N curve on a log-log scale
Components are designed below the endurance limit

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